12.3 Reproduction in Flowering Plants .


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12.3 Reproduction in Flowering Plants. Vegetative structures : stems, roots and leaves Reproductive structures : flowers Vegetative Propagation : reproduction of vegetative structures. Sexual reproduction : introduce variation through meiosis by
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12.3 Reproduction in Flowering Plants

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Vegetative structures : stems, roots and leaves Reproductive structures : flowers Vegetative Propagation : reproduction of vegetative structures

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Sexual multiplication : introduce variety through meiosis by 1. Free variety chromosomes amid metaphase 2. Recombination of qualities by traverse between homologous chromosomes at prophase I

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12.3.1 Floral Structure Both self-treatment and cross-preparation present variety. Outer operators, e.g. bugs , help in exchange of hereditary material when they help with fertilization of blooms. This, be that as it may, uncovered the defenseless gametes to drying up. Spermatophytes hence have advanced their male gamete inside a spore, the microspore or dust grain .

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Structures of a run of the mill blossom : Angiosperms replicate sexually by creating blooms

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stomium freed dust grain

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The blossom is the organ of sexual propagation in blooming plants Flowers are generally bisexual or cross-sexual however now and again unisexual sepals : peripheral whorl; frame the calyx ; green in shading; Function - 1 Protect the blossom bud 2 Carry out photosynthesis

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Petals : shape the corolla ; frequently brilliantly hued & alluring ; with creepy crawly guides which manage bugs to the base of the petals for nectar emitted by the nectary ; In a few blooms, the calyx & corolla are undistinguishable and are on the whole called the perianth

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Stamens : male regenerative parts or androecium ; Each stamen comprises of an anther and a long fiber ; Each anther contains four dust sacs with dust grains inside; The dust grains contain the male gametes

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stomium freed dust grain

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Carpels : female conceptive parts or gynoecium (or pistil); Each carpel comprises of an ovary which contains ovules with ova inside; At the highest point of the ovary is the style , with a disgrace at the tip to get dust grains for treatment

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Actinophmorphic (normal): blossoms with petals & sepals of comparative size and shape showing outspread symmetry Zygomorphic (unpredictable): blossoms with unequal sepals & petals of various shapes and orchestrated in reciprocal symmetry

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12.3.2 Pollination

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12.3.2 Pollination - meiosis happens inside the dust sacs of anther; When develop, dust sacs split open uncover their dust grains - female gametes ( egg cores ) are inside ovules funicle: ovule stalk integuments: defensive layer micropyle: a little opening through which dust tube develops into ovule

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Development of the dust grain (for reference): dust mother cells ( 2n )  meiosis  quadruplicate (4) haploid ( n ) cells  microspores (dust grains)  mitosis  generative core & tube core  mitosis  2 male cores & tube core

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Development of the ovule (for reference): nucellus  megaspore mother cell ( 2n )  meiosis  4 megaspores ( n )  3 declined, 1  incipient organism sac  mitosis 3 times  8 cores (3 antipodal cells, 2 polar cores, 2 synergids with 1 egg cell )

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Pollination : the exchange of dust grains from anthers to the marks of disgrace; outer specialists are required – (1) by bug (2) by wind

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Comparison of anemophilous (wind-pollinated) and entomorphilous (bug pollinated) blossoms

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Comparison of anemophilous (wind-pollinated) and entomorphilous (bug pollinated) blossoms

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Comparison of anemophilous (wind-pollinated) and entomorphilous (bug pollinated) blooms

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Comparison of anemophilous (wind-pollinated) and entomorphilous (bug pollinated) blooms

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Comparison of anemophilous (wind-pollinated) and entomorphilous (bug pollinated) blossoms

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12.4.1 Fertilization & Development in Flowering Plants dust grains convey dust tubes which becomes down the style & ovary, towards the micropyle dust grains are pulled in by sugars in shame and discharge catalysts to process a pathway through the style

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Double Fertilization : male gamete goes into the ovule and prepares with the egg cell the other male gamete wires with the polar cores to frame the triploid endosperm

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12.4.2 Methods of Preventing Inbreeding

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12.4.2 Methods of Preventing Inbreeding Self-fertilization : the exchange of dust from the anther to the disgrace of a similar bloom , or of another blossom of a similar plant Cross-fertilization : the exchange of dust to a bloom on an alternate plant of similar species * If dust arrives on the shame of a plant of an alternate animal types, it typically passes on. Since cross-fertilization brings about an awesome fluctuation of more versatile posterity, many plants incline toward cross-fertilization

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Methods to anticipate self-fertilization

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Methods to avoid self-fertilization

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Methods to avert self-fertilization

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Methods to forestall self-fertilization

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of botanical parts after preparation

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of flower parts after treatment

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of flower parts after treatment

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of botanical parts after preparation

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of flower parts after preparation

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of flower parts after treatment

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of botanical parts after treatment

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of botanical parts after preparation

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of botanical parts after treatment

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of botanical parts after preparation

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of flower parts after preparation

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12.4.3 Development of Fruits and Seeds Fate of botanical parts after preparation

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The most widely recognized sustenance stores in seeds is sugars (as starch). Numerous youthful seeds store sugar however this progressions to starch as they develop. Lipid are frequently put away in the cotyledons and may frame a high rate of the dry weight, e.g. peanuts. Proteins are found to a lesser degree in seeds yet wheat has an aleurone layer and protein is put away in the cotyledons of vegetables and nuts.

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An organic product is an ovary after preparation and it contains seeds Functions: Fruits : protect & scatter the developing life Seeds : protect the incipient organism Provide nourishment for the fetus Help in dispersal of the plant

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Fruits and Seeds Dispersal of seeds by natural products – (1) by twist, (2) by creatures, (3) by water, (4) by mechanical constrain, (5) Censor system, and (6) Casual instrument. Hugeness of organic products & seeds dispersal It forestalls stuffing & rivalry for constrained assets. It permits the plants to have their seeds to arrive on appropriate spots for germination, in this manner expands the shot for the plants to colonize new zones.

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Acer 劍葉槭 Clematis 甘草藤

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With snares: Burdock 牛旁 By creature: juice organic products With snares stick onto our garments With snares: Bur-marigold 鬼針草

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1. Wind Dispersal - organic products are light and have a vast surface zone to catch wind illustrations: sycamore (pericarp stretched out to shape a wing), dandelion (shaggy parachute) 2. Creature Dispersal organic products have snares or spines to stick to creatures bodies natural products as sustenance for creatures: \'stoned seeds\' stay in place & go out with the creatures\' defecation, e.g. apple, cherry

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3. Water Dispersal - organic products like coconut contain air space which makes the natural product light - seed is shrouded in an elastic or sinewy layer 4. Mechanical Dispersal - cases with a rough skin which parts open to discard seeds over a genuinely wide zone, e.g. pea

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5. Censer Mechanisms organic products are borne at the closures of long stalks with openings through which seeds are shaken as they blow in the wind; pores are shut in wet conditions, e.g. poppy 6. Easygoing Mechanisms accepting open doors & utilizing any accessible method for dispersal, e.g. oak seeds (from oak tree) might be moved along the ground by wind or conveyed about by squirrels or buoy downstream in streams

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The Structure of Seeds

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12.4.4 Dormancy The water substance of seeds is low (5-10% weight) and is the central point in forestalling germination. Times of torpidity may keep going for various years. A few seeds neglect to grow for some reason: 1. Light is important for germination of specific seeds 2. A managed time of chilly is expected to make a few seeds of mild atmospheres sprout to guarantee their seeds don\'t grow in dry harvest time & icy winter 3. A few seeds require the warmth of a glimmer fire for germination

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4. Time is required for development/in

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