2005 Seeds and Breeds Gathering, September 11-14, 2005, Iowa Elective Plant and Creature Reproducing Techniques in Europ.

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2005 Seeds and Breeds Gathering, September 11-14, 2005, Iowa Elective Plant and Creature Rearing Techniques in Europe Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren 1,2 and Wytze J. Nauta 2 1 Wageningen College, The Netherlands e.lammerts@louisbolk.nl 2 Louis Bolk Organization, The Netherlands Plot
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2005 Seeds and Breeds Conference, September 11-14, 2005, Iowa Alternative Plant and Animal Breeding Strategies in Europe Edith T. Lammerts van Bueren 1,2 and Wytze J. Nauta 2 1 Wageningen University, The Netherlands e.lammerts@louisbolk.nl 2 Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands

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Outline 1. Natural Farming in Europe 2. Regulations in Europe 3. Idea of instinctive nature 4. Samples of plant reproducing exercises 5. Cases of creature reproducing exercises

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Organic cultivating in Europe 2005

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Organic cultivating in Europe 2005

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Regulations in Europe on natural seed Closing the natural generation chain obliges natural proliferation since 2004 (EC 1452/2003). No EU regulations accessible (yet) on natural rearing (IFOAM draft guidelines 2002), with the exception of restriction on GMOs EU governments’ strategy 10 % natural creation (NL a.o. in 2010) obliges better adjusted assortments and in this way natural rearing.

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Concept of instinctive nature In Europe hereditary designing constrained the talk on structures for biological and moral qualities to control new improvements. The idea of instinctive nature incorporates: a. non-concoction approach b. agro-environmental methodology c. honesty of life methodology

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Four levels of uprightness of plants Integrity of life on four levels: 1. living beings - self-rule, self-requesting 2. plant-typic - capacity to adjust to & between act with its surroundings 3. genotypic - conceptive obstructions 4. phenotypic - adjusted yield and seed creation

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Plant reproducing and spread procedures Consequences of the idea of expectation for plant rearing and engendering strategies: Organization level Non- Agro- chemical ecological Integrity Plant/crop level + ++ +++ (Organized) cell level + or – + or – – – – DNA level – – – – –

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Examples of plant rearing – Germany Kultursaat – biodynamic vegetable reproducing www.kultursaat.com Gardeners: proliferation, testing, criticism Farmer Breeders: rearing, exploration for rearing systems, dietary quality Association Kultursaat: coordination, money related bolster, enlistment, proprietor of new mixed bags Bingenheimer Saatgut AG: Commercial seed makers organization

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Examples of plant rearing - Switzerland Peter Kunz and Sativa – biodynamic oat reproducing www.peter-kunz.ch. Chain model: Peter Kunz – raiser of spelt & wheat mixed bags Sativa: upkeep, seed generation, sales of seeds Miller with permit for Sativa brand Bakery with Sativa brand Consumers (sponsorship)

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Examples of plant rearing – The Netherlands Vitalis Organic Seeds in collaboration with ENZA (ordinary seed organization) www.vitaliszaden.nl Vitalis meets expectations freely: -Vegetable natural seed creation, deals in NL - Organic vegetable reproducing ENZA holds shares of Vitalis: - Delivers hereditary material for rearing and seed generation - European market

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Examples of plant rearing – France INRA-national exploration foundation www.selection.participative.cirad.fr Supporting natural participatory grain & vegetable rearing Providing hereditary assets & prebreeding Farmers’ system for choice exercises Documentation

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Examples of plant reproducing – The Netherlands Louis Bolk Institute – private examination establishment for natural cultivating with open financing: www.louisbolk.nl Research undertakings to create ideas and procedures for natural plant reproducing, in close participation with ranchers On-homestead assortment trials, crop ideotypes, base populaces Providing system and know how to agriculturist raisers Publications, documentation

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Examples in plant reproducing examination Broadening the hereditary base by Variety blends: grain –Denmark Hanne Oestergard – Risoe Nat. Lab, www.darcof.dk Composite intersection: winter wheat – UK Martin Wolfe-Elm Farm Research Center www.efrc.com

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Education in natural plant rearing – NL Wageningen University – Department of Plant Breeding has an enriched seat for Organic Plant Breeding, following 2005 edith.lammertsvanbueren@wur.nl English MSc course on Organic Farming Systems Supervising global PhD ventures

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International collaboration inside Europe (1) EU financed oat system venture: SUSVAR www.cost860.dk Network of raisers for low-info and natural cultivating Handbook for natural grain mixed bag testing Exchange of hereditary material International workshops

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International participation inside Europe (2) European Consortium for Organic Plant Breeding (ECO-PB, established in 2001) Member of IFOAM Providing stage for dialog, trade of information and encounters Initiation and backing of natural reproducing projects Independent aptitude for standard setting www.eco-pb.org , on-line month to month pamphlet Conferences, round table gatherings, workshops

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International collaboration inside Europe (3) Working Groups Organic Plant Breeding and Seed Production inside of customary associations: ISOFAR – International Society of Organic Agriculture research ESA – European Seed Association (individual from ISF) EUCARPIA – relationship for plant reproducing specialists

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Animal rearing in natural cultivating Many nations with numerous breeds Different provincial regions Limited potential outcomes for collaboration between nations Different thoughts regarding natural rearing?

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Activities in nations Netherlands: - Farmers vision/G x E research - Farm based “Kin-breeding” Germany: - Discussions about what natural rearing ought to be/get to be - Line-rearing (Bakels)/G x E research -Life time generation determination United Kingdom: - Crossbreeding Switzerland/Germany/Austria: - Eco-reproducing record

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Netherlands: breeds utilized

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Vision: conceivable future situations

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Vision: Major choice focuses I: Use of counterfeit proliferation II: Selection bases traditional or organic III: General or singular (Kin-rearing) approach

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The decision of dairy ranchers

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The decision of pig agriculturists

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The decision of poultry ranchers

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Based on real choice focuses I = no ET/AI, II = natural bases, III = homestead bases

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Arguments Naturality of the creation process Consumers wish (and desire) Farmers decision for natural Legislation: goals!

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Current activities sans et bulls choice GxE research Social-monetary concentrates Course on-homestead Kin-rearing Networking for Organic Breeding!

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Genotype x environment

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Milk Yield – Genetic connections (SE)

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On-homestead kinfolk reproducing Selection of “best” sire dams from distinctive families/lines Select 4-5 rearing bulls for every year from diverse lines/families Use every one of these bulls over families maintaining a strategic distance from close relations

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Why On-ranch family rearing Many agriculturists need regular reproducing with reproducing bull/hogs on the ranch Prevention of inbreeding (family reproducing is a mellow in-reproducing framework) Selection in light of natural ranch environment Very uniform groups

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Why On-homestead family rearing Dutch Friesians (FH) from family repro

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