2010 FAA Worldwide Airport Technology Transfer Conference April 20-22, 2010 FRICTION: Science or Fiction Presentation By: Timothy W. Neubert, MBA, A.A.E. NAC President GIS in AviationSlide 2
Why do air terminals perform Runway Condition Assessments? Why is Friction & Contamination Important? Contact Measurement Survey TALPA – Aviation Rulemaking Committee, Takeoff and Landing Performance Assessment TALPA Recommendations GIS in AviationSlide 3
Why do we quantify Friction ? DC-9 Aircraft Wet Runway Landing Veer-off Accident Reynosa, Mexico; October 6, 2000 GIS in AviationSlide 4
Why do we quantify Contaminates? Air ship Wet Runway Landing with Heavy Rubber Deposits, Tegucigalpa Airport , Honduras; May 30, 2008 GIS in AviationSlide 5
What is Mu? MU is a "non-dimensional number" that relates level drive to vertical load. CFME hardware measures the proportion of Horizontal drive partitioned by the Vertical compel, which would give an incentive between 0 to 1.0 GIS in AviationSlide 6
CFME Pavement Operation-Wet Test GIS in AviationSlide 7
GIS in AviationSlide 8
How Accurate is Mu utilizing CFME? This technique for computing Mu esteem does not take into account Test Speed Tire Design Tire Pressure Slip Ratio Rolling Resistance – Surface Contamination Changing any of these variables will bring about change in Mu Value. GIS in AviationSlide 9
Why do we gauge Contaminates? Tainting Effects with Roll Resistance Aircraft Wet Runway Landing with Heavy Rubber Deposits, Tegucigalpa Airport , Honduras; May 30, 2008 GIS in AviationSlide 10
EMAS GIS in AviationSlide 11
Why do we quantify Friction ? After some time, the slip resistance of runway asphalt break down because of various elements: 1. Mechanical wear and cleaning activity from flying machine tires rolling or braking on the runway surface 2. Aggregation of contaminants The impact of these two variables are straightforwardly reliant upon the volume and kind of flying machine movement . GIS in AviationSlide 12
What is a Contaminant? Runway Contaminants, for example, elastic stores, tidy particles, stream fuel, oil spillage, water, snow, ice, and slush, all cause contact misfortune on runway asphalt surfaces. The most steady contaminant issue is elastic store from feels worn out on landing plane flying machine. Elastic stores happen at the runway touchdown zones and is costly to expel. NOTE: Friction testing is required prior and then afterward elastic evacuation. Overwhelming elastic stores can totally cover the asphalt surface bringing on loss of flying machine braking ability and directional control, especially when runways are wet. GIS in AviationSlide 13
Contamination Drag Wheel Load 1000N – 224 Pounds Standing water of 3mm 47/688 = 7% mistake ! Makes Mu Value Higher by 7%Slide 14
Why do we quantify Friction ? Amid an overwhelming storm, the conditions on the length of a runway can shift and might be sufficiently profound to bring about hydroplaning. A layer of water between the tires and the runway surface diminishes the rubbing level to NIL braking activity. At the point when a runway is sullied with water, the data go to the pilot is accounted for as "wet". GIS in AviationSlide 15
Why do we quantify Friction ? "Conventional Information given to the Pilot GIS in AviationSlide 16
Pavement Runway TESTING AC150/5320-12C Measurement, Construction and Maintenance of Skid-Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces GIS in AviationSlide 17
When is Friction Testing Required by the FAA? TABLE 3-1 MINIMUM FRICTION SURVEY FREQUENCY Ref : FAA 150/5320-12C Page 19 GIS in AviationSlide 18
Pavement Testing Friction Evaluations with CFME\'s are required by the FAA Water is pumped straightforwardly before the rubbing measuring wheel at a controlled rate. This gives standard repeatable conditions This is a perfect test for observing elastic develop and the runways small scale and large scale surface Wet Friction Tests are basic to assessing new surfaces material in meeting Friction Classification Levels Pavement Testing must be performed utilizing a FAA Approved CFME GIS in Aviation Info : FAA 150/5320-12CSlide 19
Why Does Speed Matter? 40mph Testing decides the general Macrotexture/ Contaminant/Drainage state of the Pavement Surface. 60mph Testing decides the general Micro-surface of the Pavement Surface Tests give a decent sign of the runway seepage capacity amid rain conditions GIS in AviationSlide 20
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Engineering Brief No. 44B Revised Coal-Tar SealeriRejuvenator Specification 3.5 TEST SECTION FOR FRICTION SURVEYS . Before full application on any runway or rapid runway leave, the Contractor must apply the material to a test segment for grinding overview testing at the application rate affirmed by the Engineer. The region to be tried will be assigned and tried by the Engineer and situated on the current runway or fast runway leave asphalt. Application rates that outcome in a normal Mu esteem on the wet runway asphalt surface not as much as the Maintenance Planning Friction Level contained in Federal Aviation Advisory Circular 150/5320-12, "Estimation, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces," must not be affirmed for full application. *********************************************************************************** NOTE TO ENGINEER. A rubbing study test is obligatory for applications to runways and rapid runway exits. The Engineer may require grinding review tests on other asphalt, as considered fundamental. ************************************************************************************* GIS in AviationSlide 25
Reasons for Addressing Contaminated Runway Takeoff Performance Safety Historically , around 9 percent of rejected departure mischances have happened on sullied runways. We assess under 1 percent of departures in the U.S. are from defiled runways. In this manner, the danger of a rejected departure mischance on a sullied runway is a request of size more noteworthy than that for a dry runway. Runway tainting (slush, snow, ice, standing water) can essentially corrupt deceleration ability Snow , slush, standing water can likewise truly debase increasing speed capacitySlide 26
TALPA ARC Airport/Part 139 Working Group Recommendation Instructions to Airport Operators: Whenever a runway is not dry the airplane terminal administrator is in charge of giving ebb and flow runway surface condition reports. Report runway surface conditions utilizing the runway condition and pollution terms, rate of runway scope, contaminant profundity, and systems gave in this record. Amid quickly changing conditions airplane terminal administrators are required to keep up a watchful runway examination procedure to guarantee exact reports. GIS in AviationSlide 27
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TALPA ARC Airport/Part 139 Working Group Recommendation GIS in AviationSlide 29
TALPA ARC Airport/Part 139 Working Group Recommendation NOTAM SAMPLE Scenario 1: Tampa International Airport watched the accompanying conditions for runway 9: Average surface temperature - 30C Mu 39/41/35 The whole runway was secured with 1/8 in water Operations vehicle experienced decreased directional control somewhat diminished braking activity and no minimization in condition was suggested. TPA RWY 9 4/5/3 100% 1/8 INCH WET SMOOTH 1512Z 15 JUN 2009 GIS in AviationSlide 30
TALPA ARC Airport/Part 139 Working Group Recommendation RATIONALE Contaminant terms were blended to the most extreme degree conceivable with ICAO. The couple of contrasts are because of the ARC\'s craving to restrict terms to those for which flying machine fabricates can give execution information. Runway surface portrayals, for example, SMOOTH, GROOVED and PFC were added to WET conditions to permit produces to increase enhanced execution capacity when giving such information (as a couple presently give). This descriptor method made likewise made it less demanding to manage and report when the SLIPPERY condition exists. GIS in AviationSlide 31
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THANK YOU Copy of this introduction is accessible upon demand Ph: 727.538.8744 www.airportnac.com GIS in Aviation
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