3.2 Natural transmission of pathogens.

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Faecescontain the real measure of pathogens, enteric infectionsUrineonly a couple of ailments transmitted through urineGreywatere.g. clothing, washing diapers, from sustenance stuffsIndustryabattoir, nourishment industry (plant pathogens)Storm watere.g. surface keep running off
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3.2 Environmental transmission of pathogens Where do the pathogens originate from? How do pathogens in excreta sully the earth? Learning objective : To know and be acquainted with natural transmission courses for pathogens, particularly in connection to water and sanitation.

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Origin of pathogens in wastewater - commitment from various waste parts Feces contain the real measure of pathogens, enteric contaminations Urine just a couple of maladies transmitted through pee Greywater e.g. clothing, washing diapers, from nourishment stuffs Industry abattoir, sustenance industry (plant pathogens) Storm water e.g. surface keep running off – creature excrement

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Origin Agricultural overflow and emanating Domestic sewage Birds and different creatures Leachate Recreational utilize Industrial profluent Sea Stormwater and surface water Relative contributions of fecal marker microbes by source

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The "F-graph" - fundamental courses to spread looseness of the bowels The primary ways the runs is spread – by fecal pathogens defiling fingers, flies, fields, nourishment and liquids and after that in the end gulped (Esrey et al. 1998)

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Excreta from people & creatures Land Runoff Sewage Solid Waste Landfills Oceans and Estuaries Rivers and Lakes Groundwater Irrigation Shellfish Recreation Water Supply Crops Aerosols Humans Adapted from Gerba et al . 1975 Transmission courses for pathogens in human excreta 1 3 2 4 5 6 7 11 8 9 12 13 10

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Ecological Alternatives in Sanitation

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Contamination of groundwater

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Contamination of drinking water Drinking water quality Heterotrophic microbes, E. coli , metals, nitrate (different perspectives notice, shading) Contaminated surface-or groundwater Wastewater outlet, toilets, keep running off Contamination amid conveyance Growth in funnels, interruption of wastewater Contamination of completed water During capacity and taking care of, e.g. supplies, sellers

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Waterborne infections and sanitation Waterborne sicknesses: brought about by the ingestion of water defiled by human or creature defecation or pee containing pathogenic microbes or infections; incorporate cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary diarrhea and other diarrhoeal maladies. A sanitation framework including reuse need to stay away from infection transmission primarily by : ensuring ground-and surface water safe taking care of and utilization of the waste items in farming

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Possible transmission courses for pathogens from natural manures (e.g. defecation) Handling nearby The taking care of and reuse of a wide range of waste items with human or creature inception include sterile dangers

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Contamination of sustenance Contaminated seeds, take-up of pathogens? Natural composts – human excreta, wastewater, creature excrement Irrigation – wastewater, debased surface water Handling and capacity Cooking Storing of cooked nourishment, development of pathogens

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May contain microorganisms, infections, parasitic protozoa and helminths that cause diseases Diarrhoeal ailment of principle concern Feces ought to be viewed as a wellbeing danger Need to be dealt with before use as a manure Easier to handle and treat if occupied from other waste parts Pathogens in defecation

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Excretion of pathogens in dung

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Pathogens in blended wastewater Small volumes of excrement defiles vast volumes of clean water Collection from an extensive number of people – pathogens continously introduce Smaller frameworks – higher convergence of a particular pathogen Treatment not upgraded for executing pathogens 10% of wastewater is dealt with (creating nations) 20 million ha (?) inundated with wastewater

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Health dangers identified with untreated wastewater Local ecological contamination Accidental introduction High danger of down-stream contamination Exposure from e.g. swimming and expected family utilize Pollution of drinking water sources Surface keep running of and ground water penetration Contamination of inundated yields Exposure from utilization and amid water system

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Typical convergences of microorganisms in slop (EC, 2001) [per g wet weight ] In wastewater treatment pathogens are moved in the slime

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Microorganisms in pee Urine is sterile in the bladder Freshly discharged pee contains <10 000 microbes/ml Urinary tract contaminations - not transmitted through nature Leptospira interrogans - low predominance Salmonella typhi , Salmonella paratyphi - creating nations, fecal-oral transmission more basic Schistosoma haematobium - crisp water snail required for advancement generally safe for transmission of irresistible illnesses through pee

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Pathogens in pee and significance of pee as a transmission course

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Health dangers identified with pee preoccupation Risk of ailment transmission through pee The principle dangers of malady transmission from taking care of and utilizing human pee are identified with fecal cross-defilement of pee and not from the pee itself. EcoSanRes (2004)

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Urine Sterile in body Naturally containing a few microscopic organisms after discharge Few illnesses transmitted through pee Low hazard to handle Feces Naturally containing high measures of microbes Many infections transmitted through defecation (fecal-oral) May contain pathogenic microscopic organisms, infections, protozoa or helminths Significant hazard to handle Features of excreta - cleanliness Microorganisms in excreta

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Pathogens in greywater Lower groupings of pathogens than in dung Fecal birthplace of pathogens (washroom and clothing) Shower and shower, Washing garments, washing diapers Pathogens from sustenance stuffs (kitchen sink) Faceally defiled vegetables (e.g. from water system with wastewater or creature compost), soil Contaminated meat (e.g. chicken) Health hazard from transfer or reuse Contamination of close-by surroundings Contamination of drinking and recreational water Irrigation of yields

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Transmission by creatures Zoonoses Transmission humans creatures May bring about side effects or not in creature Vectors Insects, rodents, winged animals – mechanical transport Birds, wild and local creatures tainted without manifestations Intermediate host Animal fundamental for lifecycle of pathogen, e.g. jungle fever, schistosomiasis

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Outbreak of EHEC in Sweden Irrigation of lettuce (no requiremenmts for investigation of the water) Run-off from agrarian land where nibbling steers were contaminated with EHEC (a zoonoses, i.e. transmissionn creature human) Transport from fertilizer to stream water The lettuce was devoured by a substantial number of people – brought about 100 cases (approx. 10 hospitilised) At the lab: detaching and contrasting microscopic organisms in tests from patients and in water tests

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