社會科學概論.


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社會科學概論. 高永光老師. Political theory and political philosophy.
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社會科學概論 高永光老師 上課使用 Classroom Only

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Political hypothesis and political reasoning The essential point of all the sociologies is the examination of the courses in which people are composed into an aggregate social framework. Political science, as a scholastic order, centers upon how this accomplished by the office of \'government\'. In the most essential terms, political science is an investigation of the activity of pressure.

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The "state" is understood to be a definitive or "sovereign" vault of coercive force inside a characterized geographic area, and political science thinks about the organizations and practices by which this force is worked out. Indeed, even in little tribal social orders, anthropologists let us know, the structure of power is here and there extremely mind boggling.

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A. PLATO, ARISTOTLE, AND POLYBIUS Plato\'s Republic is not a depiction or examination of the legislature of Athens in his tune, or a record of its chronicled advancement. Its motivation is to portray, by and large terms, the primary qualities of an impeccable arrangement of government, one that would serve the welfare of the subjects, make community solidarity and stifle strife, give a simply social request, and, once settled require no future adjustment.

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Unlike most different works of the Utopian class\' the Republic keeps on being talked about by political researchers and rationalists 2,400 hundred years after it was composed, in light of the fact that it raises issues of significant significance and advances a perspective of the establishments of good government that is still reflected, in different routes, in modem political thought and practice.

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In Plato\'s optimal society, the rights and duties of political force have a place with an extraordinary class of "gatekeepers" comprising of a little number of people who have been chosen in youth and subjected to numerous years of thorough preparing.

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Their choice and preparing are not intended to make a class of people who are talented in expressions of the human experience of open organization Youths are chosen who show those mental qualities that are fundamental on the off chance that one is to wind up a "thinker" and the long preparing is important to understand this probability.

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with a specific end goal to comprehend Plato\'s political hypothesis, in this way we should note what he had at the top of the priority list when he contended that, in the perfect society\' the gatekeepers must be logicians. Plato\'s most popular understudy, Aristotle, couldn\'t help contradicting his educator on numerous focuses. In his Politics (the second part of a general treatise on morals) Aristotle extremely condemns both the technique and the substance of Plato\'s political hypothesis.

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The strategy, gripes Aristotle, is excessively unique; and the origination of the perfect state lessens to a political framework in which the power of the rulers is truly supported by their capacity to order \'intensely outfitted fighters\'. The investigation of legislative issues can be experimental, says Aristotle, however it must be founded on the observational examination of genuine frameworks of government.

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No definite portrayal of genuine states is exhibited in the Politics, yet Aristotle\'s contention is guided by what he considers to be the lessons that have been supplied by political experience. The head of these, in his perspective, is that no arrangement of government is great.

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All frameworks have vital properties which incorporate imperfections and also ideals, and even the best arrangement of government is just nearly superior to anything others. In addition, even in similar terms, one can\'t say that one specific arrangement of government is ideal, for, however it might be contended to be so in theory, another framework may be better in the specific circumstances of a particular society.

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\'It is obvious,\' says Aristotle \'that the type of government is best in which each man, whoever he is can represent the best and live cheerfully,\' be that as it may, dissimilar to Plato, he doesn\'t attempt to display a configuration for a legislature that will, dependably and flawlessly, serve these targets.

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B. THE VENETIAN CONSTITUTION Venice lies at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea, on the east side of the Ithacan landmass. As per legend, it was established by individuals who attempting to escape from the Lombard intruders of Italy in the 6th century\' took asylum on the low-lying islands of a tidal pond, where they were sheltered from pirates who were not talented in water route, and initiated to work there the city that we can in any case see today.

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The eminent block and stone royal residences, holy places, and other vast structures remaining on wooden heaps crashed into the mudflats of the tidal pond bespeak a past time of extraordinary extravagance and in fact, in her prime, Venice was most likely the wealthiest city on the planet Her populace was never much bigger than a hundred thousand however by exploiting her vital geographic position,

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Venice ruled the lucrative exchange amongst Europe and the East, which she upheld by a solid naval force and a broad system of-maritime and exchanging stations in the eastern Mediterranean. The essential part of Venice in the financial improvement of Europe amid the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance has been plentifully depicted by monetary students of history,

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yet we are worried here with another theme that has, tragically, been minimal perceived: the city\'s arrangement of government and the impact of this upon European political thought.

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C. SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND The seventeenth century merits some extraordinary consideration from the understudy of the historical backdrop of Western progress. Huge numbers of the components that we are currently ready to perceive plainly as variables adding to the present day advancement of that human progress started in or were immovably settled amid the seventeenth century.

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In the field of science, it was amid the seventeenth century that the advanced way to deal with information was set up by strong accomplishments.

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1. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) The keynote of Hobbes\' political reasoning is the incomparable significance of social request and the legitimate apprehension that every single balanced individual have of anything that undermines request. Hobbes alluded to himself as having been conceived with apprehension of confusion as his \'twin\', since his introduction to the world was brought on rashly by his mom\'s dismay at the news of the looming intrusion of the Spanish Armada.

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But, luckily for Hobbes, not all aggravations of efficient presence are adversities. Not long after Thomas\' introduction to the world his dad, a nation vicar illsuited to his calling, was included in a fight at the entryway of his congregation amid which he ambushed a man who had incited him.

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Thinking it reasonable to place himself past the span of the neighborhood officers, the vicar surrendered his significant other and three youthful kids and left. That was the last known about the paterfamilias. Luckily, he additionally left behind a sibling,

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Francis Hobbes, who embraced to administer to the family and saw to it that youthful Thomas got a phenomenal instruction, coming full circle in graduation from Oxford at twenty years old. Hobbes then got to be guide to the child of the Duke of Devonshire, which brought him into the circle of the most rich and intense individuals from English society.

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Hobbes turned his consideration regarding political matters when the contention between the King and Parliament was starting to tear separated the political structure of English society. His most critical book. Leviathan, was distributed in 1651, at one of the pivotal focuses in the political history of the period:

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after the execution of Charles I and the affirmation of Britain as a "Region" however before Oliver Cromwell expected tyrannical force as \'Ruler Protector\'. Hobbes subtitled the book The Matter, Forme, and Power of a Common-riches Ecclesiasticall and Civil?. There is probably he composed it to impact the course of contemporary political occasions.

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Whether it did as such is easily proven wrong, despite the fact that Cromwell\'s conduct as Protector and the part of the government later, after the Stuart reclamation in 1660, can be viewed as in accordance with Hobbes\' investigation and counsel.

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But Leviathan definitely impacted the history and reasoning of sociology, being one of the significant works that frame the move of thought on social inquiries from medieval scholasticism to present day science. The writer of the article on Hobbes for the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences finishes up his evaluation along these lines.

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2. John Locke (1632-1704) John Locke was naturally introduced to a working class. Somerset family whose way of life was made agreeable by the legacy of some property from John\'s granddad, who had been in the dress exchange. John\'s dad was a lawyer whose profit were lacking to empower him to add to the property, however he didn\'t disseminate it, so John acquired adequate riches when his dad passed on in 1661 to guarantee him an unobtrusive money related autonomy.

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He was instructed at great schools and went ahead to Oxford University. He found the educational modules fairly exhausting, with its accentuation on educational rationality, yet he was pulled in to the scholarly environment and so as to remain focused Oxford without turning into an appointed pastor (as was then required of all employees in the insightful orders) he enlisted in the Faculty of Medicine.

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He was tremendously inspired by science and turned out to be all around familiar with a large number of the main exploratory figures of the period, including Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. Locke made no particular commitments to science however he was chosen to the Royal Society m 1688, vouching for the regard in which he was held by researchers.

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D. MONTESQUIEU\'S INTERPRETATION OF THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION After the \'Heavenly Revolution\' of 1688, England entered a time of advancement which made h

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