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Altered wing UAVs have worked from littler boats with blended achievement ... Working from boats liberates administrators from prerequisites to construct or build up area bases ...
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Configuration of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Lesson objective - to talk about Requirements examination including … Basing Operational span Operational continuance Maximum extent Speed Turn around time in addition to … Example issue Requirements investigation 8-1

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Definition Requirements examination Quantitative and subjective building examination to decipher general client objectives and destinations into a traceable arrangement of "outline to" necessities Provides the configuration group with a steady arrangement of numbers they can work to Basically a type of "figuring out" Working in reverse to figure out what blend of ideas, outline and innovation best meet client desires? Generally an expense and hazard based investigation What is the most abnormal amount of framework execution achievable at the least cost and hazard? Air vehicle vacant weight and payload weight are frequently utilized as cost surrogates Requirements examination 8-2

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation UAV framework outline drivers Most top level UAV necessities concentrate on target zone scope, ability and time Reconnaissance capacities are ordinarily characterized regarding sorts or quantities of targets and sensor determination Strike abilities normally are characterized as far as sorts, numbers and appropriation of focuses For the UAV air vehicle component this regularly interprets into inferred prerequisites on Basing Operational sweep Operational perseverance Maximum extent Speed Turn around time Requirements investigation 8-3

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Land Based Operations The run of the mill basing mode for flying machine Other basing choices force punishments Weight and intricacy … ...and/or… .. Operational imperatives Land based operations are upheld by more than 45,000 air terminals worldwide Although most runways are short and unpaved Very short fields punish air vehicle outline Sophisticated high-lift frameworks are overwhelming and complex Unpaved landing strips build the punishment for departure, landing and ground operations Landing rigging, haggles include a huge rate of air vehicle unfilled weight Requirements examination 8-4

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(Total = 45,024) Design of UAV Systems What runway length do you plan for? Information Source - c 2004 LM Corporation Worldwide air terminal information Requirements examination 8-5

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Design of UAV Systems http://www.eden.com/~tomzap/b_apt.html c 2004 LM Corporation Typical unpaved field What runway sort do you plan for? Prerequisites examination 8-6

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation It relies on upon the mission Example - A Korean financial speculator sees a business opportunity for overnight ethereal conveyance of little, high esteem items amongst Korean and Chinese business and mechanical air terminals. A robotized UAV conveyance vehicle could have money saving advantages contrasted with a kept an eye on airplane. - He needs to work out of a center point in Sachon - He is acquainted with the runways in Korea and is certain that they will bolster his conveyance idea - He is not acquainted with the runways in China - He requests an underlying study to evaluate UAV departure and landing prerequisites Requirements investigation 8-7

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Analysis approach - We sign on to the web and get to the "World Fact Book" at www.odci/cia/distributions/factbook/indexfld.hmtl and gather runaway information for China and Korea - A spreadsheet is made to associate runway length and sort versus the quantity of runways per nation The outcomes are plotted and analyzed Requirements examination 8-8

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Airports - China Airports - ROK 100 90 Unpaved Design of UAV Systems 80 Paved 70 60 Number (%) 50 Number (%) 50 40 30 20 10 0 > 10Kft > 8Kft > 5Kft > 3Kft Total > 10Kft > 8Kft > 5Kft > 3Kft Total Runway Length (Kft) Runway Length (Kft) c 2004 LM Corporation Airport information Requirements investigation 8-9

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Assessment Almost all ROK and Chinese air terminals with runways longer than 3000 feet are cleared - There is no genuine advantage to having an ability to work from unpaved fields 85% of the air terminals in China are 5000 feet or more - There is no genuine advantage to having a capacity to work from shorter fields in China But just 33% of the airplane terminals in the ROK are 5000 feet or more Is this enough or would it be advisable for us to serve shorter ones? Answer: Korea is a little nation with 54 air terminals with runways > 5000 feet Requirements examination 8-10

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Vehicle Implications A subsonic (low wing stacking) plane controlled UAV could work from a 5000 foot runway in either nation A prop fueled UAV might work from a 3000 foot runway in either nation - 3000 feet is feasible for a plane it yet requires a low wing stacking or a high push to-weight (or both) see Raymer, Figure 5.4 Bottom line A plane fueled UAV could work from 85% of the runways in China and 1/3 of the runways in Korea A prop controlled UAV could work from >90% of the runways in China and >40% of the runways in Korea Requirements investigation 8-11

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Jet UAV illustration Note that departure and landing prerequisites depend on separation over a 50 foot obstruction See Raymer, 5.3 through page 103 for more data Requirements examination 8-12

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Unpaved fields Unpaved fields are not as awful as they may sound They are intended for air ship operations Typically they are sensibly smooth - They may not, be that as it may, be level - Nor especially straight And they can\'t be cleaned - This is an issue for plane air ship with motor channels situated close to the ground They additionally are by and large unusable in wet climate And air ship with high gross weight/tire contact zone proportions can sink into the ground, whether wet or dry - Runways and taxi ways for the most part have a LCN (load contact number) rating to demonstrate the amount of burden/tire contact region can be taken care of Requirements investigation 8-13

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Unprepared fields Unprepared fields are unique in relation to unpaved fields An ill-equipped field can be anything from a soccer field to a sloppy field - A necessity to work from such fields can force extreme punishments on altered wing air ship Low departure and landing speeds Heavy obligation landing outfit High flotation tires, and so on. The prerequisite can be met with a settled wing flying machine however the outcome is generally a moderate vehicle with a low wing stacking (like a Piper Super Cub) or a quicker vehicle with controlled lift (e.g. S hort T ake O ff V ertical L anding) - According to Raymer, STOVL weight punishments are 10-20% for warriors and 30-60% for transports Rotary wing air ship are frequently a superior alternative for operations from ill-equipped fields Requirements examination 8-14

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Operations adrift Operating an air vehicle from a boat is confounded Manned contenders and warrior planes have been working from plane carrying warships for a considerable length of time - But deck and air operations are mind boggling Very abnormal state of pilot capability required Crowded deck space High potential for mishaps and wounds Helicopters additionally have been working from littler boats for quite a long time. Operations are less muddled yet requesting - STOVL flying machine can likewise work from littler boats - Fixed wing UAVs have worked from littler boats with blended achievement Cruise rockets have worked from littler ships and submarines however they don\'t recuperate back to the boat - UAV/UCAV operations from subs are being examined Requirements investigation 8-15

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Design of UAV Systems c 2004 LM Corporation Benefits Ship based air operations 70% of the surface of the earth is secured with water Operating from boats liberates administrators from necessities to assemble or build up area bases Well prepared boats have lodging and procurements for group individuals and offices and extra parts for support and upgrade Global versatility is improved But the expense is high and the boats included are extensive and complex Requirements examination 8-16

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Helicopters 8 SH-3 Sea King or.. 8 SH-60 Seahawk Fixed Wing Aircraft 14 F-14 Tomcat 4 EA-6 Prowler 36 F/A-18 Hornet 4 E-2 Hawkeye 6 S-3 Viking CVN-68 Nimitz-class Crew 5680 Design of UAV Systems 252 ft (77 m) 1092 ft (333 m) http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/cvn-68.htm Aircraft intended for transporter operations regularly pay a 10-15% weight punishment c 2004 LM Corporation Aircraft Carriers Requirements investigation 8-17

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Helicopters Up to 42 CH-46 Sea Knight Crew 1100 Sailors 1900 Marines LHD-1 Wasp-class Fixed Wing Aircraft Up to 20 AV-8B Harriers Design of UAV Systems 200 ft (61m) 252 ft (77 m) http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/cvn-68.htm Only Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) air ship and helicopters right now work from ambush ships - An altered wing UAV intended to work from this class boat would most likely utilize fueled lift (10-20% weight punishment ) 844 ft (253 m) c 2004 LM Corporation Assault Ships Requirements examination 8-18

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Design of UAV Systems http://sun00781.dn.net/man/dod-101/sys/ship/LHD12.JPG Decks are swarmed and space is constrained c 2004 LM Corporation Typical attack ship Requirements examination 8-19

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Other surface boats Fixed wing air ship have been propelled from different sorts of boats - Handling is intricate and this is not broadly utilized Design of UAV Systems www.wa3key.com/growler.html http://www.fas.org/irp/program/gather/pioneer.htm Regulus - 1950s Pioneer - 1990s c 2004 LM Corporation Requirements investigation 8-20

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The huge issue is landing - Current premium spotlights on rotating wing UAVs however different ideas are being concentrated on Design of UAV Systems http://www.fas.org/irp

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