A Brief Introduction to Epidemiology - VI Basics of Research Epidemiological Research Methodologies .


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Learning Objectives. To comprehend: The best possible strategies for directing exploration What makes for good research designThe pitfalls of poor examination designThe nuts and bolts of epidemiological exploration plan. Execution Objectives. Fundamental comprehension of :The Scientific MethodDifferent sorts of exploration Patton\'s Research TypologyResearch plans utilized as a part of Epidemologic Research Common measures utilized as a part of Epidemi
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A Brief Introduction to Epidemiology - VI (Basics of Research & Epidemiological Research Methodologies) Betty C. Jung, RN, MPH, CHES

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Learning Objectives To comprehend: The best possible techniques for leading examination What makes for good research outline The pitfalls of poor research plan The fundamentals of epidemiological research outline

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Performance Objectives Basic comprehension of : The Scientific Method Different sorts of research Patton\'s Research Typology Research plans utilized as a part of Epidemologic Research Common measures utilized as a part of Epidemiologic Research

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Introduction The main role of research is to direct a logical, or, insightful examination concerning a wonder, or to answer a smoldering inquiry. Research is characterized as an efficient way to deal with critical thinking.

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What is Research? Customarily, the Scientific Method implies: Control of factors and inclinations Use of experimental confirmation to create learning Generalizable outcomes

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The Scientific Method Describe marvels Explore connections among wonders Explain marvels and increment understanding Predict reasons for and connections among wonders Control wonders

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Assumptions for Scientific Method Objective reality exists free from individuals\' recognitions Nature has request, normality, and consistency All wonders have causes that can be found

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Steps in Performing Research Problem Literature Review Conceptual & Theoretical Frameworks Variables & Hypotheses Research Design Population & test Data Collection Data Analysis Results and discoveries

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What is a Pilot Study? Done before a noteworthy review starts Minimizes the likelihood of having huge challenges happening in amid the real review Obtain information for enhancing the real review Make modifications before starting the real review

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Limitations of Research Based on the Scientific Method Every exploration contemplate has imperfections No single review demonstrates or negates a theory Ethical issues can oblige analysts Adequate control is difficult to keep up in a review

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Categorizing Research Qualitative & Quantitative Research Basic & Applied Research Patton\'s Research Typology

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Words or Numbers Qualitative Research - information from words, pictures, and so on. Quantitative Research - information from numbers

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Basic & Applied Basic Research - embraced to propel learning in a given territory - understanding connections among marvels Applied Research - attempted to cure a specific issue or alter a circumstance - to settle on choices or assess procedures

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The Continuum of Research A Typology (Patton) Basic Research Applied Research Summative Evaluation Formative Evaluation Action Research

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Basic Research Goal: To comprehend & clarify Discipline-particular Contribution: A hypothesis to clarify the wonder under scrutiny Question: How did the West Nile Virus spread to the U.S.?

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Applied Research Goal: To comprehend societal issues and recognize potential arrangement Takes a clarification and apply it to certifiable issues & encounters Inter-disciplinary Contribution: Solutions to true issues Question: How can disease transmission specialists track the spread of the West Nile Virus in the U.S.?

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Summative Evaluation Goal: To assess the viability of particular intercessions for particular issues under particular conditions Question: In 2000, did mosquito splashing contain the spread of the West Nile Virus in the U.S.?

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Formative Evaluation Goal: To enhance the adequacy of particular projects with the setting these projects were created for Question: Was State A\'s mosquito showering program similarly powerful in the towns that led splashing?

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Action Research Goal: To concentrate a particular issue inside a program, or, association, or, group Question: Was State A\'s Community Z\'s splashing plan compelling in decreasing the quantity of occupants tainted with the West Nile Virus?

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Epidemiological Study Designs Observational Studies - inspect relationship between hazard variables and results (Analytical - determinants and danger of infection, and elucidating - examples and recurrence of malady) Intervention Studies - investigate the relationship amongst mediations and results. (Test considers or clinical trials)

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Research Designs in Analytic Epidemiology Cohort Study Case-Control Study Data from Entire Population Ecologic Designs

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Epidemiologic View of Best Estimates Selection Bias - over-portrayal of the individuals who are accessible to give it Survivor Bias - getting information just from the individuals who have made due to give it Measurement predispositions Recall inclination Reporting inclination

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Measures of Association & Hypothesis Testing Test Statistic = Observed Association - Expected Association Standard Error of the Association Type I Error: Concluding there is an affiliation when one doesn\'t exist Type II Error: Concluding there is no affiliation when one exists

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Measures of Association Two Main Types of Measures Difference Measures (Two Independent Means, Two Independent Proportions, The Attributable Risk) Ratio Measures (Relative Risk, Relative Prevalence, Odds Ratio )

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Measures of Association: Difference Measures Two Independent Means Two Independent Proportions The Attributable Risk

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Attributable Risk (AR) The distinction between 2 extents Quantifies the quantity of events of a wellbeing result that is expected to, or can be credited to, the presentation or hazard figure Used to survey the effect of taking out a hazard calculate

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Measures of Association: Ratio Measures Relative Risk (RR) Relative Prevalence (RP) Odds Ratio (OR)

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Strength of Association Relative Risk;(Prevalence); Odds Ratio Strength of Association 0.83-1.00 1.0-1.2 None 0.67-0.83 1.2-1.5 Weak 0.33-0.67 1.5-3.0 Moderate 0.10-0.33 3.0-10.00 Strong <0.01 >10.0 Approaching Infinity Source: Handler,A, Rosenberg,D., Monahan, C., Kennelly, J. (1998) Analytic Methods in Maternal and Child Health. p. 69.

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The Preventive Fraction The 2x2 table does not generally need to be sorted out as far as a hazard figure and antagonistic result. Can be sorted out to concentrate on a defensive impact. Valuable for program assessment, where a program has been intended to have a positive effect and measuring the extent of this effect is coveted. A measure of program adequacy . Unfavorable Outcome Y N Program Y N

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References For Internet Resources on the themes canvassed in this address, look at my Web website .

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