An Introduction to GPSSlide 2
Outline Why GPS? What is GPS? How GPS Works. What you have to think about GPS. What would you be able to do with GPS? Uses of GPS.Slide 3
Why GPS? Numerous elements have locations and historic points that are connected with a goal.Slide 4
Why GPS? Numerous components have locations and points of interest to get you to a goal. Nonetheless, there are numerous components that don\'t have addresses…Slide 5
Why GPS? Numerous components have locations and milestones to get you to a goal However, there are numerous elements that don\'t have addresses… There are numerous MAJOR urban communities that don\'t have STREET NAMES!Slide 6
Why GPS? Numerous elements have locations and milestones to get you to a goal However, there are numerous components that don\'t have addresses… There are numerous urban areas that don\'t have STREET NAMES! And afterward there is the untamed sea and sky…Slide 7
Why GPS? Area, Location, Location and INFORMATION!!!Slide 8
Pre-GPS Navigation is basic!!! Verifiable Navigational devices have limits: - The Sextant – dependent upon climateSlide 9
Pre-GPS Navigation is basic Historical Navigational apparatuses have limits: - The Sextant – dependent upon climate - Radionavigation (Lowrance): just works close land…Slide 10
Pre-GPS Navigation is basic Historical Navigational devices have limits: - The Sextant – doesn\'t work on the off chance that it is shady - Lowrance – radionavigation: just worked close land… The military had its own particular explanations behind deciding area… - Identify targets - Friendly fire issues - "savvy bombs"Slide 11
What is GPS? GPS is not a solitary UNIT! GPS = Global Positioning SYSTEM GPS was created by the Department of Defense Funding for the GPS was dependent upon making the framework accessible to the general population.Slide 12
GPS is a SYSTEM There are three noteworthy segments in this framework: Satellites Ground Control Stations GPS Receivers (or units)Slide 13
Satellites There are 24 satellites (and 3 saves). The DOD knows the EXACT area of each of the satellites at any given minute. These satellites have VERY exact timekeepers on load up. The satellites ceaselessly send radio signs towards earth. The radio signs contain a few bits of data, including the satellite id#, a period stamp, and the satellite\'s actual position in space.Slide 14
Control Stations There are five control stations to screen the satellites. Control stations empower data on Earth to be transmitted to the satellites (upgrades and fine turning). Control stations constantly track satellites, and upgrade the positions of every satellite. Without control stations, the exactness of the framework would corrupt in a matter of days.Slide 15
GPS Receivers GPS units are alluded to as "recipients". They get data (radio signs) from satellites. These radio signs contain important data… Signal containing: Time stamp… Satellite ID # Exact position of satelliteSlide 16
GPS Receivers The Receiver knows precisely when the sign leaves the satellite (time stamp) and when the sign touches base at the beneficiary. The Receiver is in this manner ready to figure its separation from the satellite. - Distance = time x speed -Distance = time x 299,792,458 m/s The recipient knows the accurate position (area) of the satellite (by means of the sign). The beneficiary is accordingly ready to decide its definite separation from the satellite.Slide 17
How GPS Works Signal with Time stamp… Satellite ID # Satellite position dataSlide 18
How GPS Works If the GPS recipient just acquires signals from 1 Satellite, then it "knows" that it is found some place on this circle…Slide 19
How GPS WorksSlide 20
How GPS Works If the GPS beneficiary just gets signals from 2 satellites, then it "knows" that it is found some place where these 2 circles crossSlide 21
How GPS WorksSlide 22
How GPS Works If the GPS gets signals from 3 satellites, then it "knows" that it is found some place where these 3 circles meet (2 focuses)Slide 23
How GPS WorksSlide 24
How GPS Works A fourth GPS is required to decide the precise area and height.Slide 25
What you have to think about GPS Signal Accuracy Issues Selective Availability Tricks of the Trade Current Applications of GPS Future utilizations of GPSSlide 26
Signal Accuracy There are 2 sorts of GPS Signals: P-code : ("Precise" code) This is just accessible to the military and some chose open authorities. Extremely exact, not debased. C-code : ("Civilian" Code). Less exact Degraded (by scrambling the sign) particularly in times of contentionSlide 27
Selective Availability (SA) For national security reasons, the military at times debases the C-code signal. These blunders are irregular Errors be as high as +300 feetSlide 28
Selective Availability SA mistakes can put you on the wrong side of a stream, or even an alternate city piece or road! 300 feet is a great deal of land!!! GPS Location Real areaSlide 29
Selective Availability It is conceivable to remedy for Selective Availability. This procedure is called Differential Correction Here\'s the manner by which it works…Slide 30
Differential Correction There are as of now settled base stations around Virginia Surveyors have decided the exact area of these base stations as of now. Every base station has a GPS beneficiary, which gathers approaching (mixed) signals. The genuine (studied) area is then contrasted with the GPS arranges. The rectification qualities are then sent to different GPS collectors in the field.Slide 31
Differential Correction Base station w/GPS recipient at known area: Differential Correction Signal GPS beneficiary in the field gathering focuses, courses, and so forth. Careful known directions contrast fundamentally from GPS organizes at this area = definite measure of mistake!Slide 32
Other Tricks of the Trade: Averaging: A GPS collector can gather focuses constantly for 15-30 seconds. The beneficiary can then normal every one of these areas together This exclusive works when you are stopping!! GPS Collected Points GPS Averaged Point "Genuine" areaSlide 33
Other Tricks of the Trade: Satellite Distribution It is better for your collector to get a fix on "disseminated" satellites, then ineffectively appropriated satellites. "Positional Dilution of Precision" Good Satellite Distribution Poor Satellite DistributionSlide 34
Other Tricks of the Trade: MultiPath Errors Try and avoid structures and different structures when utilizing a GPS recipient Satellites may not be obvious… This can present blunder…Slide 35
Other Tricks of the Trade: Tracking Satellites GPS has overall scope… HOWEVER… You can lose satellite scope (or got corrupted signs) in territories with thick foliage, in downtown ranges, and so forth. You may likewise lose satellite scope (or get debased signs) in profound valleys or crevasses.Slide 36
Other Tricks of the Trade: WAAS The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is a differential GPS framework that is being developed to bolster GPS exactness in airplane. WAAS is bolstered by various satellites that emanate signs to standard GPS units.Slide 37
How exact is a $100 GPS? That is the million dollar question…Slide 39
Brand "A" Day 1 Brand "A" Day 2 Brand "A" Day 3 Brand "A" Day 4 Brand "A" Day 5 Brand "B" Day 1 Brand "B" Day 2 Brand "B" Day 3 Brand "B" Day 4 Brand "B" Day 5Slide 41
What would you be able to do with a GPS? Gather and store focuses (WAYPOINTS) Trail heads, brook intersections, peaks, outdoors ground, information accumulation focuses (for examination), and so forth. Download the focuses onto your PC and incorporate them with other mapping programsSlide 42
What would you be able to do with a GPS? Gather and store highways (a progression of WAYPOINTS) A course is a way between two (or more) Waypoints. The GPS "guides you" from point "A" to point "B".Slide 43
What would you be able to do with a GPS? The GOTO capacity Using the "GOTO" capacity, the GPS will direct you to a predefined Waypoint (you pick which one… ) utilizing a compass and "pointer" You can program the GPS to "beep" when you are inside a specific separation of the characterized WaypointSlide 44
What would you be able to do with a GPS? Tide Tables Many of the marine GPS\'s have worked in tide tables. They will give tide data and extents to any date and wherever…Slide 45
What would you be able to do with a GPS? Rate GPS\'s figure your ground speed as you walk, run, drive or flySlide 46
What would you be able to do with a GPS? Rise notwithstanding furnishing you with your scope and longitude, GPS furnishes you with elevation data.Slide 47
Current Applications of GPS Public Safety Environmental asset operators Aviation Military Local arranging Surveying Recreation BusinessSlide 48
Acknowledgments: Keith Clarke The Future of GPSSlide 49
The Future is here. The applications are perpetual…Slide 50
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