A Whirlwind Tour of CSCW Research .


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A Tornado Voyage through CSCW Research. Joseph F. McCarthy Intel Research, Seattle (Elizabeth F. Churchill FX Palo Alto Lab). Outline. Conventional CSCW Foundation, Impacts, Advancements Contextual investigation (Palen and Grudin) Date-book use in the work environment Non-customary CSCW
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A Whirlwind Tour of CSCW Research Joseph F. McCarthy Intel Research, Seattle (Elizabeth F. Churchill FX Palo Alto Laboratory)

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Overview Traditional CSCW Background, Influences, Technologies Case think about (Palen & Grudin) Calendar use in the work environment Non-conventional CSCW Beyond the working environment Case Studies MusicFX: A framework for Computer Supported Collaborative Work outs Proactive Displays Others…

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What is CSCW? PC Supported Cooperative Work The field of CSCW concentrates on the utilization of innovation to intercede collaborations among individuals Use: Ethnography, plan, … Technology: Devices, foundations, … Interactions: Text, sound, video, … People: Teams, associations, groups, … Psychology, hierarchical conduct, human science, …

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HCI versus CSCW HCI: human-PC association Individuals\' connections and associations with data innovation May include > 1 individual, however not really CSCW: human-PC human communication Individuals\' communications and connections through data innovation Always > 1 individual

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Evolution of CSCW Computer Supported Cooperative Work is [typically] a social action including > 1 individual Technology can help and abet: Foreground: Communication, coordination, joint effort Background: Awareness Bridging time, space, authoritative limits, … Computer Supported Cooperative Whatever Beyond the work environment: progressively accessible in different settings … Home, auto, bistros, open spots, private spots, … and connected to non-work exercises Socializing, diversion, keeping in contact, …

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Trends Convergence Computing, communication, communicate media Mobility (  Ubiquity) Devices: Laptops, PDAs, cell phones Infrastructure: WiFi, {2,2.5,3}G, EDGE Communities Professional (people group of practice) Others (Ebay.com, match.com, meetup.com) Goals Efficiency versus fun

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CSCW has many impacts Computer Science Engineering Sociology: full scale and small scale Psychology Organizational Studies Management Studies Anthropology Communication Ethnography

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CSCW investigate has numerous viewpoints Hard Determinism Behavior is unavoidably formed by innovation Soft Determinism Behavior has a tendency to be molded by innovation Co-Determinism Technology and our expectations control in show Non-Determinism We control the employments of innovation

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Dimensions of Cooperation: Time and Space Place/Space F2F collaborations Post-its Telephony Email Newsgroups Text visit (IM, SMS) Calendar/planning Electronic whiteboards Audio/video conferencing App. /information sharing Group altering/comment GDSS Dataflow, work process Expertise area Recommendation Systems Awareness (media spaces) Time See Bannon and Schmidt, 1991: CSCW: Four Characters in Search of a Context. In Bowers, J. furthermore, Benford, S. (Eds) Studies in Computer Supported Cooperative Work – Theory, Practice and Design. North Holland.

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Thinking of exercises from centered to fringe Awareness Shared experience Social exercises Informal cooperations Locating associates Reciprocity and symmetry are critical for collective errands Office sharing Meetings Focused work assignments See Harrison and Bly

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CSCW concentrates on individuals working (connecting) with others Community; clients Organization Project/Teams Small Groups Individuals Networked PCs; PDAs, cellphones Workspaces; Media spaces; video conferencing GDSS; Workflow; Workspaces; Media spaces Intranets; archive vaults; aptitude area Internet; WWW HCI CSCW From Grudin, 1994

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Team and Small Group Characteristics Members know each other Collaborate to accomplish a shared objective Highly engaged, intuitive Strong requirement for correspondence Examples Software advancement group, proposition composing, gathering program panels, little operational gatherings, for example, client bolster, inquire about venture groups Support advances include: Buddy records, texting, visit, Groove, Quickplace, BSCW, video conferencing, information conferencing See Grudin and Poltrock, Tutorial Collaboration Technology in Teams, Organizations, and Communities

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Organization Characteristics Geographically circulated Hierarchical administration structure Strong requirement for coordination Examples Companies, governments or government offices, non-benefit associations Support advances include: Email, logbooks, work process, Lotus Notes, intranet applications and networks, report administration frameworks, communicate video

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Community Characteristics Members don\'t [all] know each other Common interests or inclinations Loose structure & cooperations Examples Citizens of a city or neighborhood Newsgroups Virtual world nationals Auction members Support innovations include: sites, talk rooms, virtual universes Issues: notoriety, responsibility, obscurity Civic support regularly experiences uneven investment Lurkers "Disaster of the Commons"

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Groupware versus Communityware Groupware Medium for reaching and associating with known colleagues keeping in mind the end goal to accomplish a common objective Email, Calendars, Chat, Whiteboards, Conferencing Communityware Medium for starting contact/exchanges with obscure teammates who have comparative interests and inclinations Newsgroups, Ebay, Amazon, Epinions, Meetup.com, Match.com

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Case Study: Shared Calendars Adoption of Groupware Managerial Mandate (choose to utilize) Discretionary Choice (start to utilize) Effort/advantage tradeoff Benefit to administrators, administrators Effort required by "givers" Critical mass required [nearly] win or bust Discretionary Adoption of Group Support Software: Lessons from Calendar Applications. L. Palen and J. Grudin, 2002. In B.E. Munkvold (Ed.), Implementing coordinated effort innovations in associations, 159-180.

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Studies of Calendar Use Initial meetings (Microsoft) 5 subjects; distinctive positions, divisions More meetings (Sun) 40 questions 12 subjects (clients, non-clients) Survey (both) 20 questions 3000 individuals (each site) Microsoft: 30% reaction rate Sun: half reaction rate

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Similarities Widespread appropriation (75% of appts) Sun: 81% Microsoft: 75% "Unremarkable" innovation Part of ordinary work "Hard to envision existence without it"

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Differences Sun CalendarManager Default (82%): open date-books User name + have PC name Company rolodex Scheduling, planning (derivations) Microsoft Schedule+ Default (81%): free/occupied (just) Scheduling just

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Factors influencing selection Peer weight "across the board desire" "in addition to me", "peruse me" Exclusive advantages (conf. rooms) Integration (email "solicitations") Interface straightforwardness & effectiveness Technical support

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Case Study: Intel intel.com versus intel-research.net

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Case Study: Shared Environment MusicFX

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Proactive Displays that can detect and react properly to the general population and exercises occurring in their region Displays Sensors Contexts Content Interaction Models

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"Surrounding" Displays Dangling String (PARC) Bus Mobile (UC Berkeley)

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Proactive Displays in the Large Sunset @ 200MHz (PARC) Love Board (Hachiko Crossing)

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Proactive Displays in the Large Alaris E-loads up (www.alaris.net)

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Proactive Displays at a Conference AutoSpeakerID Q/A session Photo,name,affiliation Ticket2Talk Coffee break Explicit substance One individual (at any given moment) Neighborhood Window Lounge zone Implicit substance Multiple individuals

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Experience UbiComp Project Desire for common disclosure demonstrate & tell about you & your work; find out about others & their work Restricted settings Paper/board sessions Demo/publication sessions Reception/breaks Available substance Explicit: enlistment data Implicit: landing page information mining Stakeholders individuals who impact, and are affected by, shown content

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UbiComp 2003 Deployment Register (make profile) www.proactivedisplays.org WiFi accessible all through gathering Activate Associate profile with RFID label (stand) Participate Insert RFID tag into identification sleeve Approach a Proactive Display Opt out whenever Delete data/profile Remove RFID tag

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Registration

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Activation

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Evaluation Survey (as of Nov. 6, 2003) 500 participants 250 members 70 respondents (48 were members)

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Experiences AutoSpeakerID half of examiners\' labels distinguished Oral just, visual just, visual + oral Fun with picture, name as well as connection "I\'m the genuine <X>" Ticket2Talk Conversations, mindfulness about new & old "Who\'s <X>?!" Neighborhood Window Similar to T2T, however to a greater degree an oddity variable (and more clamor) "red priests" Death Valley

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PlasmaPoster Churchill, et al., FXPAL An intuitive show publication load up/notice load up/board content as "conversational props" supplement/goad to online association informal communities and social capital

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GroupWear Nametags

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GroupWear Nametags Richard Borovoy, Fred Martin, Mitch Resnick, Brian Silverman (MIT Media Lab) CHI \'98 Interpersonal enlargement encouraging cooperation between individuals, not individuals & machines interpersonal showcases: show for other individuals Q&A: modified by "dunking" in "pail booths" issue: how to increase yet not occupy lights demonstrate rate of comparable perspectives, not recognizing singular inquiries

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nTAGs Networking Applications Common Ground Idea Sharing Card Exchange Network Tracking and Visualizations Networking Games Event Management Applications Lead Capture Polls and Surveys Attendance Tracking and Security Digital Tickets Event Information Message Delivery www.ntag.com

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i-balls Folk Computing: Re

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