Address 19: The Campaigns.

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Address 19: The Campaigns - "Crusade" ("cross") was the name given to more than twelve campaigns by Christians of Western Europe against Muslims in the Sacred Grounds somewhere around 1096 and 1291 - Crusades were conceivable on account of the production of new kingdoms
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Address 19: The Crusades

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- “Crusade” (“cross”) was the name given to more than twelve campaigns by Christians of Western Europe against Muslims in the Holy Lands somewhere around 1096 and 1291 - Crusades were conceivable due to the production of new kingdoms and realms in Europe which created a huge class of furnished warriors (knights) who quarreled amongst one another - 1009 the Fatimid Caliph sacked a hospice in Jerusalem and destroyed the Holy\'s Church Sepulcher - Unsuccessful in upholding the Peace and Truce of God, the Church encouraged the knights to guard Christians in the Holy Lands - 1074 Byzantine Emperor Michael VII approaches Pope Gregory VII for help against the attacking Seljuk Turks - 1091 Sicily “reconquered” by Norman pioneer Roger Guiscard

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- First campaign asked for by Pope Urban II in 1096, who asked French to help the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I battle Seljuk Turks after they seriously beat him at Battle of Manzikert in 1071 - Seljuk Turks were wanderers from Central Asia who changed over to Islam and went about as hired soldiers for decision Arab administration under Abbasid caliphate, whom they then vanquished - Byzantine Empire had additionally declined on the grounds that Normans vanquished formerly Byzantine territories in Sicily and southern Italy - Byzantines had requested just budgetary guide from however Pope Urban sees this as a chance to retouch the fracture between the Eastern and Western Churches (1054); enlisted people French knights at Clermont in southern France in 1095 to join campaign - Crusaders were offered prompt abatement of their transgressions whether or not they kicked the bucket in fight

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- First campaigns lead by religious fan, Peter the Hermit who lead “crusade of the poor,” then “Walter the Penniless” - Crusading hordes pillaged and plundered their way through Europe, killing Jews along the way - First expert campaign lead by child of Robert Guiscard; 10,000 knights and troopers reach Constantinople in 1097 and defeat Seljuks; then Jerusalem in 1099 where they slaughtered all the tenants – men, ladies and kids - Four autonomous crusader states were set up at Antioch, Edessa, Tripoli and Jerusalem - Feudal crusader states were encompassed by threatening Muslim states, but were supplied by Italian urban communities, including Genoa, Pisa and Venice, who got to be rich through this exchange

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- 1144 Edessa is recovered by Turks; St. Bernard of Clairvaux appeals to representatives to go into another campaign “for profit” if not to “rescue Christians” - Second campaign unsuccessful in light of the fact that objectives of the crusade unclear and knights battled with one another, instead of Turks - Third Crusade (1169): Sunni Muslims of Syria attack Egypt, lead by well known warrior Saladin, who then attacks Jerusalem and obliterates Christian strengths at Battle of Hattin in 1187, however does not slaughter populace - Germans, French and English then exact duties to raise income to recover Holy Land; Frederick Barbarossa suffocates in Anatolia, Richard the Lionhearted arranges a settlement which permits Christians free access to Jerusalem - Crusades after 1204 were predominantly about the quest for riches

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- In 1307 King Philip IV of France blames Knights Templar for impieties and after Inquisition, plunders Templar treasuries all together to proceed with his war against English - Crusades permitted the Church to combine its influence against other Christian organizations; rulers to solidify control over nobles - Crusades unleashed an influx of hostile to semitism and brutality against Eastern Christians and littler orders - Because of campaigns, Western forces extended exchange with the East, and both merchandise and thoughts traded - Need to raise, transport and supply vast armed forces likewise made trade inside of Western Europe - Once acquainted with products from the East, Westerners needed the spices, ivory, jade, precious stones, glass, black po

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