Computerized Camera Field Testing Results in Support of the Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS) Michael J. McFarland (Utah State University) Steve L. Rasmussen (Hill AFB) Daniel A. Stone (Hill AFB) Glenn R. Palmer (Hill AFB) Mike Spencer (Eastman Kodak, Inc.) Josh A. Gunter (EMassist, Inc.) Joint Services Environmental Management Conference & Exposition April 13, 2005Slide 2
OUTLINE Background Theory of DOCS Goal and Objectives Methods Hardware Validation Field Results Conclusions and RecommendationsSlide 3
Acknowledgments Field showing was monetarily bolstered by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (Contract CP-200119)Slide 4
Acknowledgments Participating Organizations Included : EPA Emission Measurement Center EPA Regions VI, VIII California Air Resources Board Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Utah Division of Air Quality Hill AFB, UT Eastman Kodak, Inc. (Rochester, NY)Slide 5
BACKGROUND Visible darkness is the most as often as possible refered to air quality parameter in Title V working grants. For the larger part of managed air sources, the essential strategy for deciding consistence with allowed murkiness levels is EPA Reference Method 9 (Method 9)Slide 6
BACKGROUND Method 9 depends on prepared human eyewitnesses to outwardly decide consistence by assessing the mistiness of a smoke crest once like clockwork for a predefined day and age. Since its darkness assessments are characteristically subjective, Method 9 results are helpless against cases of incorrectness, predisposition and, now and again, out and out misrepresentation.Slide 10
BACKGROUND Beyond the specialized concerns, the repeating Method 9 preparing expenses can turn into a noteworthy money related weight on an office\'s consistence spending plan. The Department of Defense (DoD) spends around $42 million dollars for each year to bolster the Method 9 consistence program.Slide 11
BACKGROUND With declining DoD consistence spending plans, advancement of financially savvy and administrative supportable techniques for checking obvious murkiness is accepting expanded consideration.Slide 12
Digital Opacity Compliance System The Digital Opacity Compliance System (DOCS) is a minimal effort and creative innovation that utilizes computerized imaging innovation for evaluating unmistakable mistiness Recent financial examinations have shown that appropriation of the DOCS innovation could spare DoD roughly $16 million dollars for each year in air consistence costs.Slide 13
Digital Opacity Compliance System The DOCS utilizes a business off-the-rack (COTS) computerized camera to catch pictures of obvious darkness, which are then broke down utilizing a straightforward PC programming bundleSlide 14
Basics of the DOCS TechnologySlide 15
Digital Opacity Compliance System Operational Steps Activate the DOCS murkiness examination program Retrieve those advanced photos to be assessed Draw an investigation box (or network) around that part of the unmistakable outflows that will be dissected for obscuritySlide 17
Previous Field Demonstrations From Jan. 2001 through Dec. 2003, the DOCS innovation was field tried at three EPA-endorsed smoke schools (Ogden, UT, Augusta, GA and Columbus, OH) and various military and private business locales. Prior field information affirmed that the DOCS reliably met the execution norms built up for Method 9Slide 18
Field Demonstration of the DOCS at Sludge Incinerator in Healy, AlaskaSlide 19
Validated DOCS Hardware The approved computerized cameras used to bolster the DOCS field shows incorporated the Kodak models DC265 and DC290. Both advanced camera models are no more financially accessible. Without accepted equipment, DOCS innovation clients can not be bolsteredSlide 20
Goal of Study The objective of the present exertion was to create, actualize and assess a progression of financially accessible computerized cameras in backing of the DOCS innovationSlide 21
OBJECTIVES Evaluate economically accessible advanced cameras for their capacity to bolster the DOCS innovation programming. Measurably analyze the obscurity comes about acquired from computerized cameras to those reported by EPA-affirmed in-stack transmissometers and beforehand approved advanced camera frameworks.Slide 22
METHODS Based on cost and usefulness , the Kodak model DX6490, Sony Cybershot DSC-WI, Fuji Finepix E500 and the Nikon Coolpix 5200 were chosen to experience handle approval testing. Kodak Model DX6490 was assessed against the Kodak Model DC290 at an EPA-affirmed Method 9 smoke school held in Syracuse, NYSlide 23
METHODS The advanced photos of unmistakable obscurity taken by the Kodak model DX6490 and DC290 were assessed utilizing the DOCS innovation. The field results were contrasted with the noticeable darkness reported by the EPA-confirmed in-stack transmissometerSlide 24
METHODS The normal obscurity distinction for both the Kodak model DX6490 and DC290 was processed utilizing the accompanying condition : Opacity (Transmissometer) – Opacity (DOCS)Slide 25
METHODS The field information was broke down measurably utilizing a matched t-test and by registering the 99% certainty interim about the normal mistiness distinction.Slide 26
METHODS The Sony Cybershot DSC-WI, Fuji Finepix E500 and the Nikon Coolpix 5200 were assessed utilizing a Method 9 smoke generator in Anchorage, Alaska.Slide 27
METHODS Since an EPA-affirmed transmissometer was not accessible, the haziness comes about gathered from the new computerized cameras were contrasted with results acquired from the Kodak model DC290 .Slide 28
METHODS The normal murkiness distinction for between the Kodak model DC290 and the new computerized camera models was figured utilizing the accompanying condition: Opacity (DC290) – Opacity (new frameworks)Slide 29
METHODS As in the Syracuse, NY Method 9 smoke school, the field information was investigated measurably by registering the 99% certainty interim about the normal mistiness contrast.Slide 30
Positioning of DOCS Cameras Stack Height – 15 Feet Stack Distance – 50 feet 70 degrees C1 70 degrees C4 C3 C2 70 degrees 70 degreesSlide 31
RESULTS Performance of the Kodak DC290 and Kodak DX6490 at Method 9 Smoke School (0 – 100%)Slide 32
Results recommend that from 0 – 100% haziness, the Kodak model DC290 was factually equal to the EPA-confirmed transmissometer. The Kodak model DX6450 was not proportionate.Slide 33
RESULTS Performance of the Kodak DC290 and Kodak DX6490 at Method 9 Smoke School (0 - 40%)Slide 34
Results recommend that over the obscurity scope of 0 – 40%, both the Kodak model DC290 and DX6450 were measurably proportional to the EPA guaranteed transmissometer.Slide 35
RESULTS Performance of the Kodak DC290 and New Digital Camera Models (0-100%)Slide 36
Results recommend that over the full scope of darkness (0 – 100%), none of the new camera models were measurably proportional to the Kodak model DC290.Slide 37
RESULTS Performance of the Kodak DC290 and New Digital Camera Models (0 – 40%)Slide 38
Results recommend that over the obscurity scope of 0 – 40%, the Sony Cybershot DSC-WI and the Nikon Coolpix 5200 were measurably proportional to the Kodak model DC290.Slide 39
Over the 0 – 40% haziness run, the execution of the Fuji Finepix E500 was altogether distinctive.Slide 40
CONCLUSIONS Over the whole darkness go, the Kodak DC290-DOCS mix was found to quantify obvious obscurity with a precision measurably comparable to the EPA-ensured transmissometer.Slide 41
CONCLUSIONS Over the 0 – 40% mistiness go, the execution of the Kodak model DX6490 , Sony Cybershot DSC-WI and Nikon Coolpix 5200 was observed to be practically identical to the Kodak DC290Slide 42
CONCLUSIONS The Fuji Finepix E500-DOCS mix measured unmistakable obscurity with an exactness that was measurably not quite the same as the Kodak model DC290.Slide 43
RECOMMENDATIONS Because of quick changes in advanced innovation, any administrative affirmed mistiness strategy that utilizes computerized symbolism must fuse a convention for testing and approving new equipment. Camera acceptance testing ought to be extended to incorporate a more prominent number of computerized camera makes/modelsSlide 44
RECOMMENDATIONS For the DoD (and others) in the directed group to perceive the money related advantage of receiving advanced innovation for obscurity consistence check, improvement and proclamation of another administrative endorsed technique is earnestly required.Slide 45
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