Advanced European Scholarly History.

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diagram. introduction: from vitalism to existentialismHermann Hesse (1877-1962): from the dualistic to the changeable selfLuigi Pirandello (1867-1936): scripts and the selfconclusion. past dualism. from vitalism to existentialismVitalism includes variants of dualism (human advancement v. brutality, male v. female, grown-up v. tyke, West v. East)from a dualistic perspective of human identity a more unpredictable, mutable co
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Present day European Intellectual History Lecture 20 The Multiple and Fragmentary Self

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layout introduction: from vitalism to existentialism Hermann Hesse (1877-1962): from the dualistic to the changeable self Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936): scripts and the self conclusion

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past dualism from vitalism to existentialism Vitalism includes adaptations of dualism (human advancement v. brutality, male v. female, grown-up v. tyke, West v. East) from a dualistic perspective of human identity a more perplexing, changeable origination

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Hermann Hesse (1877-1962)

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works Peter Camenzind (1904) Emil Sinclair, pseud., Demian (1919) Siddhartha (1922) "The Longing of the Time for a Worldview" (1926) The Wolf of the Steppes (Steppenwolf) (1927) The Glass Bead Game ( Magister Ludi ) (1943)

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Steppenwolf Harry Haller "A wolf of steppes that had lost its direction and strayed into the towns and the life of the group." "There is much to be said for satisfaction and effortlessness, for these endurable and easygoing days, on which neither agony for delight is discernable, however go by whispering and on tiptoe. Yet, the most exceedingly bad of it is that it is only this happiness that I can\'t persevere. Before long it fills me with irrepressible sickness and contempt. In edginess I need to escape and toss myself headed for joy or, if that can\'t be, making a course for torment." … I would rather feel the very fallen angel smolder in me that this glow of an all around warmed room. A wild aching for forceful feelings and sensations fumes in me, a fierceness against this toneless, level, ordinary and sterile life." "Now what we call "middle class," when viewed as a component dependably to be found in human life, is nothing else than the quest for parity. It is the making progress toward a mean between the incalculable extremes and contrary energies that emerge in human behavior. … It is between the two, amidst the street, that the common looks to walk. He will never surrender himself either to desire or to religious austerity. … His optimal is not to surrender but rather to keep up his own particular character. … A man can\'t live strongly aside from at the expense of the self. Presently the middle class treasures nothing more profoundly than the self (simple however his might be)."

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"Treatise on the Steppenwolf" "The Steppenwolf had two natures, a human and a wolfish one. … In his cognizant life he lived now as a wolf, now as a man, … But when he was a wolf, the man in him lay in snare, ever on the watch to meddle and censure, while at those times that he was man the wolf did nevertheless." "The division into wolf and man, fragile living creature and soul, by method for which Harry tries to make his predetermination more fathomable to himself is an exceptionally awesome rearrangements. It is a compelling of reality to suit a conceivable, however mistaken, clarification of that disagreement which this man finds in himself and which appears to himself to be the wellspring of his in no way, shape or form irrelevant sufferings. … But there is not a solitary person … who is so helpfully straightforward that his being can be clarified as the aggregate of a few primary components; and to clarify so unpredictable a man as Harry by the guileless division into wolf and man is a pitifully puerile endeavor. Harry comprises of a hundred or a thousand selves, not of two. His life sways, as everybody\'s does, not only between two shafts, for example, the body and the soul, the holy person and the delinquent, yet somewhere around thousands and thousands."

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cont\'d "It seems, by all accounts, to be an intrinsic and basic need of all men to see the self as a unit. However regularly and however heinously this deception is broken, it generally repairs once more. … And if at any time the suspicion of their complex being heaps of uncommon forces and of surprisingly sensitive discernments, so that, as all virtuoso must, they get through the deception of the solidarity of the identity and see that the self is comprised of a heap of selves, they have just to say as much and immediately they greater part puts them carefully guarded, calls science to help, builds up schizomania and shields mankind from the need of listening to the cry of truth from the lips of these shocking people. … A man, in this manner, who gets so far as making the gathered solidarity of the self two-fold is as of now just about a virtuoso … in all actuality, each sense of self, so distant from being a solidarity is in the most elevated degree a complex world, a constellated paradise, a mayhem of structures, of states and stages, of legacies and possibilities. It gives off an impression of being a need as basic as eating and relaxing for everybody to be compelled to view this disarray as a solidarity and to discuss his sense of self just as it were a one-fold and obviously confined and settled marvel. Indeed, even the best of us share the dream. The hallucination rests basically upon a false similarity. As a body everybody is single, as a spirit never."

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Cont\'d "Each day new souls kept springing up close to the host of old ones, making boisterous requests and making perplexity; and now I saw as plainly as in a photo what a hallucination my previous identity had been. The couple of limits and interests in which I had happened to be solid had involved all my consideration, and I had portrayed myself as a man who was in reality simply a most refined and instructed authority in verse, music and reasoning; and all things considered I had lived, leaving all whatever is left of me to be a mayhem of possibilities, senses, and motivations which I found an encumbrance and gave the name of Steppenwolf. In the interim, however cured of a dream, I discovered this crumbling of the identity in no way, shape or form a lovely and diverting enterprise. Despite what might be expected, it was frequently exceedingly difficult, regularly verging on terrible." Friedrich Nietzsche: "self-defeating" Wilhelm Reich, Character Analysis (1933)

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Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936)

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the guarantee of dramatization Hesse: "Of all writing up to our days the show has been the most exceptionally prized by author and commentators, and appropriately, since it offers (or may offer) the best conceivable outcomes of speaking to the sense of self as a complex substance, however for the optical hallucination which makes us trust that the characters of the play are one-fold elements by cabin every one in a verifiable body, independently, independently, and for the last time. What\'s more, unsophisticated tasteful feedback, then, keeps its most noteworthy acclaim for this supposed character dramatization in which every character shows up unmistakably as a different and single element." Pirandello: "Mine has been a battlefield. The war uncovered the theater to me: when interests were unleashed I made my own animals endure these interests on the stage."

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It Is So! (On the off chance that You Think So) (1918) "However what are you for other individuals? What are you in their eyes? A picture, my dear sir, only a picture in the glass." "It stays to be checked whether what is a ghost for him and her is really a man for herself. Now it appears to me there\'s some motivation to uncertainty it." "Whomever you trust me to be, … and with respect to myself, I am no one!" Alasdair MacIntyre: "In numerous premodern, conventional social orders it is through his or her participation in an assortment of social gatherings that the individual distinguishes himself or herself and is recognized by others. I am sibling, cousin and grandson, individual from this family unit, that town, this tribe. These are not qualities that have a place with individuals inadvertently, to be stripped away keeping in mind the end goal to find \'the genuine me.\' They are a piece of my substance, characterizing somewhat in any event and in some cases entirely my commitments and my obligations. People acquire a specific space inside an interlocking arrangement of social connections; without that space, they are no one or, best case scenario a more interesting or pariah."

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Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) The Father: "We have the figment of being one individual for all, of having an identity that is novel in every one of our demonstrations. Be that as it may, it isn\'t valid. We see this when, shockingly maybe, in something we do, we are in a manner of speaking, suspended, made up for lost time noticeable all around on a sort of snare. At that point we see that every one of us was not in that demonstration, and that it would be monstrous bad form to judge us by that activity alone, as though all our presence were summed up in one deed" (231-2). contrasts between anecdotal characters and "genuine" on-screen characters who play them: outer • characters require adequate resemblance to real surroundings to play scene inside • misses interiority • never leave character (so in honing mother needs to watch temptation scene) • agreeableness (no stripping) • girl\'s dissension that skipping enticement scene benefits father\'s perspective

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is it better to be a character? "The distinction is [that our reality] doesn\'t transform; it can\'t change. It can\'t be other than what it is, on the grounds that it is now settled for eternity. It\'s horrendous" (266). "We are all making accept here. … A character, sir, may dependably ask a man his identity. Since a character dependably has truly his very own existence, set apart with his particular qualities; for which reason he is dependably "some individual." But a man — I\'m not discussing you now — might just be \'no one.\'" (264-5). "[T]he same way this you as you feel it today — this present reality of yours — is destined to appear a minor fantasy to you tomorrow" (265).

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Henry IV (1922) "having structure" v. "being structure" Q: Did your significant other\'s disease permit you to concentrate on the universe of the distraught, their brain science and their rationale? A: Whoever endures and lives in the torment of a man he adores can\'t ponder it since that would mean expecting the detachment of an observer. In any case, to see life being transposed in the brain of my poor friend empowered me later to pass on the brain research of the distraught in my exploratory writing. Not the rationale. The insane person develops without rationale. Rationale is for

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