Advanced Sound Fundamentals and Diagram.


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Simple versus Digital Aliasing Quantization Jitter Dither ... Consider the sound interconnects between the DVD Player and the Receiver. ...
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Computerized AUDIO Basics and Overview Digital Audio Signal Processing Syracuse University, Fall 2007 Instructor: Jayant Datta

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A day for Basics of Audio Interconnects Basics of Sampling Analog versus Digital + Aliasing + Quantization + Jitter + Dither Basics of Audio Basics of Digital Systems LTI + Convolution + Digital Filters Basics of Pointers + AGU

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Audio Interconnects :: DVD

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Audio Interconnects :: Receiver

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Audio Interconnects Think about the sound interconnects between the DVD Player and the Receiver. It would be ideal if you consider the simple and the advanced availability. Presently, attempt to make sense of how data is being passed on for every situation (simple and computerized).

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Basics of Sampling Continuous Time/Amplitude { Analog } Discrete Time { Sampled } Sampling Theorem Aliasing - spoked wheel, { Alias, NormAlias } spectra, {CreatePlayAlias(fDuration, fGain, iFreqOrig, iFs)} Require an against associating channel before ADC stage Quantization Discrete Amplitude { Quant } Effect at various sign levels { Quantizer, NormQuantErr [2,5,8]} How great is 16-bits of determination? 24-bits? Dither { DispDither }

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Basics of Sampling Analog/Digital Conversion Multi-bit Systems Low level signs - could profit by dithering Oversampled Systems/Single Bit Systems Noise Shaping Faster Clock Speed Low resistance to Jitter - { Jitter } [no quantization] Better hostile to associating More direct

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Analog versus Digital Cost and Complexity versus Flexibility Analog economical surely knew innovation normal intertia against change Digital practically by definition more prominent adaptability case of parametric EQ and reverb - code change framework configuration could be more straightforward and adaptable Programming Expertise - packaged programming Just impersonating simple underutilizes computerized

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Analog versus Digital Nature of Errors SNR (little versus extensive signs) Jitter Masking Distortion Non-linearity of attractive tape - delicate versus hard cutting Quantization/Aliasing/Jitter/Dither/Psychoacoustic Masking Humans are simple; advanced ancient rarities are not instinctive

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Outline Introduction Consumer Audio Home Theater Overview Guessing the Future

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Introduction How Technology propels Taking things for allowed Recorded Sound Pursuing flawlessness Law of unavoidable losses

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First "recording" made in 1855 with a "Phonautograph" – mouthpiece horn, layer, stylus, pivoting barrel with smoke-darkened paper – exploration and investigation Wax chambers "Listening studios" where twelve individuals could listen to the same recording, each through a tube in the ear Already cases of "see what matters" Early excitement

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Whole assortment of media: Vertical, flat knocks; wax and metal, barrels and platters, hand wrenched, electrical, diverse sizes If in immaculate condition, some individuals favor the "wealthier" simple sound, additionally individuals discover commotion "hotter" Incidentally, early recordings were done from the middle outwards Phonograph

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Phonographs/Turntables

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Open Reel/Reel to Reel

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Open Reel Decks Open Reel Decks at one point characterized the best in class in sound recording

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All 1966 Fords offered a plant introduced in-dash 8-track player. In the 1967 model year, Chrysler and GM offered the same. By the late 1960s, a few organizations were making players for the other tape circle frameworks, including 4-track, however the main genuine rivalry originated from tape tapes (which showed up at around the same time as 8-tracks) and the god-like vinyl records. Eight-track tapes were with us for a significant long time. 8-track was the overwhelming compact and auto sound organization of the 1970s 8 Track

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8 Track Head must be consummately adjusted; massive; no recordable ones

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Was initially expected as a managing arrange Very helpful configuration, fits in a shirt pocket On presentation, had three fundamental issues: speed steadiness, recurrence reaction, and foundation murmur The initial two were surmountable, through better tape drive instruments, heads, and tape definitions Cassette Tape

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Dolby Alphabet Soup Dolby A [1965] Dolby B [1968] Dolby C Dolby HX Dolby HX Pro Dolby SR [1986] Dolby S Dolby AC-1 [1985] Dolby AC-2 [1989] Dolby AC-3 [1992] Dolby E

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Dolby Stereo/Surround 1975: 35 mm stereo optical discharge print position Dolby Stereo. Ordinary mono optical soundtrack supplanted by two soundtracks conveying left and right, as well as a third focus screen and a fourth encompass channel for surrounding sound and embellishments - perfect with mono. 1982: Consumer rendition of Dolby stereo called Dolby Surround

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Compact Disk In 1978 Sony collaborated with Philips to build up a standard, general minimized plate to hold sound. After two years a Philips/Sony Compact Disk Digital Audio standard circle was authoritatively reported. The plate was 120 millimeters, produced using a polycarbonate substrate, and formed with a notch that gives timing and following data to the minimized circle player. It was discharged formally in Europe and Japan in 1982 and in the United States the next year. Testing rate: 44.1 kHz Maximum span: 74 ~ 80 minutes Quantization: 16-bit straight Rotational velocity: 1.2–1.4 m/sec. (consistent direct speed) Error revision code: Cross Interleave Reed-Solomon Code (with 25% repetition)

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Compact Disk

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Compact Disk A CD is a genuinely straightforward bit of plastic, around four one-hundredths (4/100) of an inch (1.2 mm) thick. The vast majority of a CD comprises of an infusion shaped bit of clear polycarbonate plastic . Amid assembling, this plastic is inspired with tiny knocks masterminded as a solitary, persistent, greatly long winding track of information. Once the unmistakable bit of polycarbonate is shaped, a flimsy, intelligent aluminum layer is sputtered onto the plate, covering the knocks. At that point a meager acrylic layer is showered over the aluminum to secure it. The mark is then imprinted onto the acrylic. A cross segment of a complete CD (not to scale) seems as though this:

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Dolby Surround/Pro Logic Dolby Surround just decoded left, right and encompass 1987: Birth of Home theater - now appreciated by a large number of purchasers around the world - was made conceivable by the incorporation of four-channel Dolby Surround Pro Logic unraveling in items, for example, A/V collectors

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Developed in the 1980\'s as a successor to the simple tape. Data is recorded utilizing the "helical scan" recording system which is the same strategy utilized as a part of VHS, Beta, and 8mm videocassette recorders. Contrasted with these different configurations, DAT tapes are much littler and the data is encoded digitally. Utilized for studio recording … costly… buyer variants were less costly Old most loved of contraband exchanging Digital Audio Tape (DAT)

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Digital Audio Tape (DAT)

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ADAT = Alesis DAT ADATs use S-VHS tapes. A 120 moment tape gives 40 minutes of recording on the ADAT. Capacity of up to 999 location areas – robotization An extraordinarily extended element range Elimination of tape murmur and recurrence misfortune – era misfortune Backups of expert tapes sound like the original expert. Immaculate track detachment (no track "bleed" on multi-channel blends). Lower expense of recording tape. Less documenting space required. ADAT

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Dolby Digital 5.1 1992: Dolby Digital (AC-3) is a multichannel computerized sound coding innovation initially utilized for film sound. Today it is additionally used to bring multichannel sound into the home by means of a wide assortment of advanced arrangements, including DVD, DTV, and computerized link.

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DCC players are in reverse good with simple tapes Track and time codes are on the tape. DCC decks can find a picked track on either side of the tape. The DCC 900 can digitally record music in 16-bit determination and backings testing frequencies of 32, 44.1, and 48 kHz Precision Adaptive Sub-band Coding (PASC) pressure to code the advanced data onto tape. (4:1 proportion) DCC: Digital Compact Cassette

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MiniDisc resemble a floppy circle – you can record and delete documents on a MiniDisc simply as you can on a floppy plate. The huge contrast between the a MiniDisc and a floppy circle is that a MiniDisc can hold around 100 times more information Durable in light of the fact that in diskette… no scratching ATRAC encoding (Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding), lossy, pressure 5:1 MD: Mini Disk

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DTS (Digital Theater System) 1993, Steven Spielberg\'s Jurassic Park presented the fresh, clear stable of DTS Simple future-evidence decoder Intelligence is in encoding stage Decoder takes after directions inside coded bit stream Encoding calculation might be upgraded and altered, consequently profiting each buyer decoder Syntax of information stream detail intended to give space to extra sound information – enhancements in sound quality or changes in sound arrangement DTS – CD

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DVD: Digital Versatile Disk Emerging innovation that is amazingly intense. It would appear that a CD – however is significantly more. Can put away to eight hours of CD quality sound. Can accumulate to 133 minutes of high determination video information. Soundtrack is displayed in up to eight distinct dialects, and utilizations 5.1 channel Dolby Digital encompass sound/DTS. A solitary sided, single layer DVD can store 4.38GB of information. A twofold sided, twofold layer DVD can store 15.9GB of information. Most CDs can just store 700MB of information. Unquestionably changing home theater. Reward footage; director\'s/on-screen character\'s editorial; diverse camera points.

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Multichannel "Upgrades" 5.1/6.1/7.1/10.2 1999: Dolby Digital Surround EX in Star Wars : Episode I: The Phantom Menace – pseudo 6.1 DTS-ES (Extended Surround), ES 6.1 discrete, Neo:6, 96k/24-bit, 7.1 THX is an innovation created by Lucasfilm to

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