Air Quality Impact Analysis .

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Air Quality Effect Investigation. 1. Establish a relationship in the middle of outflows and air quality. AQ past = an EM past b 2. A change in emanations results in an air quality effect. AQ future = an EM future b
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Air Quality Impact Analysis 1. Establish a connection amongst outflows and air quality. AQ past = an EM past + b 2. A change in outflows brings about an air quality effect. AQ future = an EM future + b 3. However, for a few contaminations, air quality is an entangled capacity of meteorology and science.

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Case 1: No Chemistry, Widespread Source Use Linear Rollback Pollutants CO Diesel particulate matter Benzene - responds gradually

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Case 2: No Chemistry, Variety of Sources Use Chemical Mass Balance Model Trace metals distinguish source commitments for natural carbon and basic carbon Use Meteorological Analyses Identify source ranges for tidy, natural carbon, and essential carbon

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Bakersfield PM Sources 100% 80% Unexplained 60% Nitrate Sulfate Fraction (%) Construction 40% Primary Crude Oil Vegetative Burning 20% Primary MV Geological 0% PM 10 PM 2.5 PM 10 PM 2.5 Annual 24-Hour

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Case 3: Linear Chemistry, Single Precursor Verify Linear Rollback Trace metals recognize source commitments Meteorological investigations recognize source regions Pollutants Nitrates - correspond to NO X , expect adequate NH 3 Sulfates - connect to SO X , accept adequate oxidant Secondary natural carbon - appraise with transformation variables for aromatics and high-weight alkanes 1,3-Butadiene - check for misfortune rate relative to O 3 HCHO, CH 3 CHO - contrast with O 3 for synthetic arrangement assess NO 2 - relate to NO X

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California NO 2 and NO X

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Trends for Los Angeles Annual Top30 Mean

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Trends for Bakersfield Annual Top30 Mean

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Case 4: Complex Chemistry, Several Precursors PM2.5 Includes ignition and compound development items PM2.5  nitrates + sulfates + OC + EC + SOC PM10 Includes fine and coarse particles PM10  PM2.5 + tidy Observation-Based Techniques for O 3 Extent of response Ratio of O 3 to NO X NO X focus

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Preparatory Tasks Data Quality Review Site visits Graphical examination Statistical investigation Emission Inventory Reconciliation Ambient proportion investigation VOC speciation assessment

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Project Overview A Study on Changes in Specifications for Gasoline and Diesel Fuels in Thailand Daedalus LLC/ERM Siam

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Task 4 - Air Quality Analysis Air Toxics PM10 and PM2.5 Ozone Carbon Monoxide Nitrogen Dioxide

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Task 4 - Air Toxics (Methods) PTT Data Collection 3 destinations, 40 tests December 1999 and January 2000 benzene, 1,3-butadiene formaldehyde, acetaldehyde CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , TNMHC Correlate air toxics with CO Estimate diesel PM from PM10

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Task 4 - Air Toxics (Methods) Calculate 1998 fixations PCD 1997-98 CO and PM10 information Sites with 75% information catch Estimate 2005 and 2010 levels Project versatile source NMHC outflows Project diesel PM10 discharges Calculate growth chance California unit chance elements

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Task 4 - Annual Concentrations

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Task 4 - Lifetime Cancer Risk per Million People

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Task 4 - Lifetime Cancer Risk per Million People

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Task 4 - Air Toxics (Remaining) Obtain PCD information Compare to PTT CO, CH 4 , and NMHC information as a quality check Determine if air toxics relate better with NO X and PM10 Include auxiliary development of aldehydes Discuss investigation with PTT and PCD Character of Nonsi site Resolve 1,3-butadiene issues

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Task 4 - PM (Methods) PCD Data Collection 16 perpetual locales with hourly PM10 information in 1997 and 1998 Filter-based PM10 and TSP not gave Summarize 24-hr and yearly midpoints Examine PM10 associations with air quality and meteorological information Estimate 2005 and 2010 levels Rollback from 1998 utilizing emanations

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Task 4 - PM (Results) Large decrease from 1997 to 1998 All destinations, both averaging times Annual-normal PM proportions PM10:TSP = 0.3 to 0.6 (4 destinations) PM2.5:PM10 = 0.5 (2 locales) Din Daeng (54T) is pinnacle site Strong relationship with CO and NO X Weak with NMHC thus 2 None with O 3 and meteorology

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Task 4 - PM (Results) High PM related with portable sources, diesel specifically PM2.5 and PM10 levels surpass all Thai and U.S. principles Ostro et al. discovered 10  g/m 3 in day by day Bangkok PM10 related with 1-2% expansion in characteristic mortality 1-2% increment in cardiovascular mortality 3-6% expansion in respiratory mortality

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Task 4 - PM (Results) PM2.5 and PM10 levels liable to be higher in 2005 and 2010 Mobile source diesel PM discharges increment 16% from 1998 to 2005 22% from 1998 to 2010 Mobile source NO X emanations increment 26% from 1998 to 2005 40% from 1998 to 2010

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Task 4 - PM (Remaining) Discuss investigation with PCD Obtain hello there vol PM10 and TSP information Compare greetings vol and BAM PM10 information as a quality check Determine reasons for vast PM10 decrease from 1997 to 1998 Compare 1997 air quality and meteorological information to 1998

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Task 4 - CO and NO 2 (Methods) PCD Data Collection 14 perpetual locales with CO and NO 2 1997 and 1998 information most entire Verify NO 2 connection to CO and NO X Estimate 2005 and 2010 levels Rollback from 1998 utilizing outflows Project versatile source CO and NO X outflows

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Task 4 - CO and NO 2 (Results)

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Task 4 - CO and NO 2 (Remaining) Discuss examination with PCD Confirm that no 1998 information from Junkasame (most elevated CO in 1996) are accessible

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Task 4 - Conclusions Air Toxics PTT information gives a decent first gauge of vaporous air lethal levels in Bangkok Diesel PM is the real patron to tumor hazard Benzene and 1,3-butadiene are additionally noteworthy benefactors Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are minor components, however optional arrangement still should be incorporated

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Task 4 - Conclusions Particulate Matter Many days over Thai and U.S. models for PM2.5 and PM10 High PM levels identified with portable sources (coordinate outflows and additionally street tidy) PM emphatically connected with mortality Large abatement from 1997 to 1998 may show impact of financial emergency

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Task 4 - Conclusions Carbon Monoxide Likely to accomplish 1-hour and 8-hour norms with existing controls Nitrogen Dioxide Only one infringement of standard in 1998 Peaks driven by versatile source, as opposed to stationary source, NO X discharges Peak levels liable to increment in future

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