(alternately, How Did Genocide Happen in Our Patio?).

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Guatemala. Lion's share of populace is indigenous (Maya) yet few Maya in positions of force ... Gen. R os Montt: Guatemala does not have a singed earth arrangement, but rather ...
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(on the other hand, How Did Genocide Happen in Our Backyard?) Guatemala: a human rights history

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Why study Guatemala? Instance of worry to all humankind: in 36 years of equipped clash (1960-1996), 200,000 Guatemalans executed, for the most part unarmed indigenous laborers butchered in slaughters

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Q. In what manner would it be able to be that unarmed indigenous villagers are butchered by their own administration? How does genocide happen?

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Q. How does genocide happen? A. Dark/white rationale of Latin America\'s war on fear based oppression + settled in bigotry and structures of ethnic rejection = genocide

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Guatemala Small and profoundly unequal nation Since frontier times, riches packed in not very many hands, the vast majority greatly poor Attempts to change structures of disparity have been welcomed by viciousness

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Guatemala Majority of populace is indigenous (Maya) yet few Maya in positions of influence

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Guatemala\'s "Ten Years of Spring" 1944-October upset ousts autocracy Two equitably chose presidents, Ar é valo and Arbenz, authorize parties, develop vote, advance training Agrarian change

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United Fruit Company 40,000 employments in Guatemala ventures esteemed at $60 million possessed the nation\'s phone and transmit offices claimed verging on each mile of railroad in the nation controlled its exclusive port on the Atlantic Ocean consumed banana sends out not upbeat about agrarian change  campaigned US government to intercede on grounds of "ceasing Communism"

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1954 Coup US intercession in Guatemala arranged by 2 siblings: Secretary of State John Foster Dulles (attorney whose firm spoke to United Fruit) CIA Director Allen Dulles (previous individual from United Fruit\'s Board of Trustees)

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Document 1 1995 study by CIA history staff expert Gerald K. Haines recognizes and clarifies the CIA\'s part in toppling the justly chosen administration of Jacobo Arbenz in 1954 and in "arranging" of "key government authorities and Guatemalan Communists"

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1954 Coup 1954: CIA expelled President Arbenz, constrained him into outcast, introduced US-accommodating government to supplant him any individual who protested new government was executed; CIA drew up hit records the overthrow and ensuing constraint of restriction  start of the Guatemalan guerrilla development in 1960

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Guatemalan guerrilla development Members of the military who rejected Guatemala\'s capitulation to USA Marxist belief system Small, surreptitious gatherings, mix in with regular citizen populace Political endeavors: try to manufacture prominent backing by instructing individuals about bad form Military endeavors: unrealistic to win on combat zone, so should organize specific operations to bring state force "to its knees": bombings of state offices, kidnappings and particular death of adversaries

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Why might anybody bolster guerrillas? Government declined to permit open exchange with political rivals, looked to kill them Closing down political discourse  restriction progressively radicalized, resort to edgy strategies, including savagery

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Document 2 Declassified link from CIA station in Guatemala City reporting execution of PGT pioneers

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Counterinsurgency War In eyes of CIA and Guatemalan military, guerrillas were "psychological oppressors" and "communists" => war against them was war against fear Not "a couple of rotten ones" - these strategies were a piece of the arrangement, intended to " safeguard majority rules system " Binary rationale of Cold War: "You\'re either with us, or you\'re against us" According to National Security Doctrine, "fear based oppressors", as well as the individuals who bolster them, must be focused on; keeping in mind peaceful method for focusing on them were ideal, overabundances were OK if important to ensure society all in all

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Q. How does genocide happen? A. Dark/white rationale of Latin America\'s war on psychological oppression + dug in bigotry and structures of ethnic rejection = genocide

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First influx of war (1960-1970) Widespread utilization of state fear mongering => Crushing annihilation for guerrillas Few survivors chose to regroup, moved to western good countries, went underground for a long time Did not apply open nearness again until mid-1970s

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Second flood of war (1975-1986) Guerrilla bunches developed in western high countries New test for Army: since guerrillas arranging in indigenous groups, distinguishing them implied infiltrating these groups Civil watches (paramilitary units) "Seared earth"

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Document 3 declassified CIA link from April 1981 , portraying how an Army watch discovered proof that occupants of a town named Cocob upheld the guerrillas, and along these lines "were compelled to flame at anything that moved")

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Document 4 DCI Watch Committee Report, dated 5 February 1982 (DCI Watch is a board of trustees of the CIA) talks about Guatemalan military\'s arrangements to clear through a zone where numerous indigenous laborers bolster the guerrilla, and recognizing that "it will be important to pulverize various towns"

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Document 5 Feb 1982 CIA link Describes Army clear through the same range examined in archive 4, taking note of that no real guerrilla powers had been found yet that since the Army has finished up the whole Indian populace is ace guerrilla , "the Army can be required to give no quarter to soldiers and non-warriors alike" and the armed force has subsequently obliterated "a substantial number" of guerrilla partners

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Genocide Prior to this period, parallel rationale of "you\'re either with us, or you\'re against us" => huge restraint Turning point: condition of indigenous character with socialism This is the place enormous constraint got to be genocide 626 slaughters numerous groups wiped off guide thought was not to rebuff guerrillas, but rather to take out whole society which "shrouded" them

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Did the US government know? 1982-83 most grisly time of war, thousands killed every month Gen. Ríos Montt: Guatemala does not have a seared earth arrangement, but rather a "singed socialist strategy" in 1982, in the wake of getting these reports, Pres. Reagan moved to reestablish military guide to the Guatemalan Army, said Guatemala "battle for majority rules system" In 1997 Pres. Clinton formally apologized to Guatemala

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Peace End of icy war, ascent of human rights development => Awareness started to spread about what was going on; International popular sentiment betrayed Guatemalan government, energized peace process 1996: Guatemalan government and guerrillas marked peace agrees

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Human rights in Guatemala Today, the courts, not the combat zone, are the site of the most imperative human rights battles No one has been sentenced requesting human rights wrongdoings Those driving push to change this keep on being chased down and killed today legal counselors, witnesses, offended parties in human rights cases routinely killed

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Lessons? The Guatemalan genocide happened for the sake of sparing majority rules system from psychological warfare Tragic that in the battle to "shield popular government", significantly antidemocratic mix-ups were made One late investigation of Brazilian torturers (Huggins et al 2002) distinguishes certain attributes of "abomination situations": Secrecy and apprehension Binary rationale: "you\'re either with us or you\'re against us" Climate of hard and fast war against inward foe

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The mistaken conviction that the end legitimizes the methods changed over Guatemala into a nation of death and trouble. It ought to be recalled, for the last time, that there are no qualities better than the lives of people, and in this manner better than the presence and prosperity of a whole national group. — Commission for Historical Clarification, 1999

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