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Classification. Chapter 18. Characteristics of Living Things. Section 1-3. Characteristic. Examples. Living things are made up of units called cells. Many microorganisms consist of only a single cell. Animals and trees are multicellular. Living things reproduce.
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Order Chapter 18

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Characteristics of Living Things Section 1-3 Characteristic Examples Living things are comprised of units called cells. Numerous microorganisms comprise of just a solitary cell. Creatures and trees are multicellular. Living things replicate. Maple trees duplicate sexually. A hydra can imitate abiogenetically by growing. Living things depend on a general hereditary code. DNA: Flies deliver flies. Pooches deliver canines. Seeds from maple trees create maple trees. Living things develop and create. Flies start life as eggs, then get to be larvae, and afterward get to be grown-up flies. Living things acquire and utilize materials and vitality. Digestion system: Plants acquire their vitality from daylight. Creatures get their vitality from the nourishment they eat. Jolt: Leaves and stems of plants develop toward light. Living things react to their surroundings. Homeostasis: Despite changes in the temperature of the earth, a robin keeps up a steady body temperature. Living things keep up a stable interior environment. Taken as a gathering, living things change after some time. Advancement: Plants that live in the leave survive in light of the fact that they have gotten to be adjusted to the states of the abandon.

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Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization Section 1-3 Biosphere The piece of Earth that contains all environments Biosphere Ecosystem Community and its nonliving environment Hawk, wind, buffalo, prairie canine, grass, stream, rocks, air Community Populations that live respectively in a characterized zone Hawk, wind, buffalo, prairie puppy, grass Population Group of creatures of one write that live in similar region Bison crowd

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Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization proceeded with Section 1-3 Organism Individual living thing Bison Tissues, organs, and organ frameworks Groups of Cells Nervous framework Brain Nervous tissue Smallest utilitarian unit of life Cells Nerve cell Groups of iotas; littlest unit of most substance mixes Molecules DNA Water

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Why Do We Classify Organisms? Scholars bunch life forms to speak to likenesses and proposed connections. Arrangement frameworks change with growing information about new and surely understood living beings. Tacitus bellus

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Taxonomy- - arrangement of characterization Name living beings Group life forms in a consistent way Establishes normal arrangement of paradigm paying little heed to dialect or nation

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Classification and Phylogeny Common names are hazardous shift among dialects and even among areas inside a nation Early naming endeavors were up to 20 words Binomial Nomenclature Hierarchical Classification Systematics: Evolutionary Classification

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Linnaeus\' System of Classification Hierarchical framework including seven levels or taxons Species (most particular grouping) Genus (related species) Family (related variety) Order (related families) Class (related orders) Phylum (related classes) Kingdom (related phylum- - broadest classification of grouping)

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Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Linnaeus\' System of Classification

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Hierarchical Classification Taxonomic classes Kingdom K ing Phylum P hilip Class C ame Order O ver Family F or Genus G ood Species S paghetti

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Coral snake Abert squirrel Sea star Grizzly bear Black bear Giant panda Red fox KINGDOM Animalia PHYLUM Chordata CLASS Mammalia ORDER Carnivora FAMILY Ursidae GENUS Ursus SPECIES Ursus arctos Figure 18-5 Hierarchical System of Classification

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Binomial Nomenclature Carolus von Linnaeus Two-word naming framework Latin Genus Noun, Capitalized, Underlined or Italicized Species Descriptive, Lower Case, Underlined or Italicized Carolus von Linnaeus (1707-1778) Swedish researcher who established framework for cutting edge scientific categorization

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Genus gathering of firmly related species species one of a kind to every animal varieties inside the sort regularly Latinized portrayal of some critical quality Genus species Homo sapiens man Ursus maritimus polar bear Ursus arctos mountain bear

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Which similitudes are generally vital? Linnaeus gather species into bigger taxa as indicated by noticeable similitudes and contrasts Modern scholars now aggregate life forms into classes that speak to lines of phylogeny or transformative connections (Darwin), not simply physical likenesses

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Phylogenetics Organism\'s characterization ought to reflect phylogeny — the transformative history of an animal types or taxon Compare obvious likenesses among presently living species or fossils from wiped out life forms Compare examples of embryonic advancement and routes in which distinctive species express comparative qualities Compare comparative chromosomes, DNA or RNA

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Homologous versus Undifferentiated from Structures Homologous structures share a typical structure Analogous structures have a comparable capacity

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Modern Evolutionary Classification Organisms figure out who has a place with their animal categories by deciding with whom they will mate! Species is characterized as a gathering of life forms equipped for rearing and creating suitable (posterity that are likewise fit for repeating) Taxonomic gatherings over the level of species are "developed" by scientists are liable to change as our comprehension and data enhances

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Evolutionary Classification Species inside a family are more firmly identified with each other than to species in another variety Members of a sort share a late regular predecessor Higher the level of the taxon, the more remote back in time is the basic precursor of the considerable number of creatures in the taxon

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Taxonomic Diagrams Mammals Turtles Lizards and Snakes Crocodiles Birds Mammals Turtles Lizards and Snakes Crocodiles Birds Phylogenetic Tree Cladogram

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Figure 18-13 Cladogram of Six Kingdoms and Three Domains Section 18-3 DOMAIN ARCHAEA DOMAIN EUKARYA Kingdoms Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia DOMAIN BACTERIA Go to Section:

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Dichotomous Keys Identify Organisms Dichotomous keys versus transformative grouping Dichotomous keys contain sets of differentiating depictions. After every portrayal, the key guides the client to another combine of depictions or distinguishes the living being. Case: 1. a) Is the leaf basic? Go to 2 b) Is the leaf compound? Go to 3 2.a) Are edges of the leaf spiked? Go to 4 b) Are edges of the leaf smooth? Go to 5

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Classification Using Cladograms Identifies and considers just those qualities of life forms that are developmental advancements new attributes that emerge as genealogies advance after some time attributes that show up in late parts of a linneage yet not in its more seasoned individuals are called inferred characters Shared characters are elements that all individuals from a gathering have in like manner—hair in warm blooded animals or plumes in winged creatures

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Cladograms Help researchers see how one genealogy extended from another over the span of development Represents a sort of transformative tree demonstrating transformative connections among a gathering of life forms Organisms that share one or more determined characters presumably acquired those characters from a typical precursor

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Appendages Conical Shells Crustaceans Gastropod Crab Limpet Barnacle Molted exoskeleton Segmentation Tiny free-swimming hatchling CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES CLADOGRAM Traditional Classification versus Cladogram

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Similarities in DNA and RNA DNA & RNA are so comparative over all types of life, they can be utilized to look at living beings at their most essential level- - their qualities The protein myosin which people use for muscle withdrawal is likewise delivered by yeast to help inner cell parts to move The more comparable the DNA successions of two species- - the all the more as of late they shared a typical progenitor

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Molecular Clocks Uses DNA correlations with gauge the time allotment that two species have been developing autonomously Relies on a rehashing procedure to stamp time- - change The level of divergence means that to what extent back the two species shared a typical predecessor

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Living Things Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cells are described by Important qualities which put them in and varying Domain Eukarya Cell divider structures, for example, which is subdivided into which put them in Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Protista Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia which harmonizes with which concurs with Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria

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Kingdoms and Domains are more comprehensive classification - bigger than a kingdom Domain Eukarya Kingdoms Protists, Fungi, Plants, Animals Domain Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria Domain Archaea Kingdom Archaebacteria

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Kingdoms and Domains The three-area framework Bacteria Archaea Eukarya The six-kingdom framework Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia The customary five-kingdom framework Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

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Figure 18-12 Key Characteristics of Kingdoms and Domains Section 18-3 Classification of Living Things DOMAIN KINGDOM CELL TYPE CELL STRUCTURES NUMBER OF CELLS MODE OF NUTRITION EXAMPLES Bacteria Eubacteria Prokaryote Cell dividers with peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Streptococcus, Escherichia coli Archaea Archaebacteria Prokaryote Cell dividers without peptidoglycan Unicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Methanogens, halophiles Protista Eukaryote Cell dividers of cellulose in a few; some have chloroplasts Most unicellular; some provincial; some multicellular Autotroph or heterotroph Amoeba, Paramecium, ooze molds, goliath kelp Fungi Eukaryote Cell dividers of chitin Most multicellular; some unicellular Heterotroph Mushrooms, yeasts Eukarya Plantae Eukaryote Cell dividers of cellulose; chloroplasts Multicellular Autotroph Mosses, greeneries, blossoming plants Animalia Eukaryote No phone dividers or chloroplasts Multicellular Heterotroph Sponges, worms, creepy crawlies, angles, well evolved creatures Go to Section:

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