Assessing and Diminishing Work Costs.


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1. Direct and fork get together 2. Edge wheel gathering 3. Deck gathering ... Roundup(700/202.3)=4 required for Steer get together. Casing get together: 1 laborer gives 35(5.98) ...
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Slide 1

Assessing and Reducing Labor Costs Chapter 4

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The Role of Labor Costs in Manufacturing: The Auto Industry Other 100% Overhead 90% Warranty Quality 80% 70% Assembly and other Labor costs 60% Purchased parts and congregations Parts and material costs half 40% Logistics costs 30% 20% Material costs 10% 0% Final Assembler\'s cost Including Tier 1 Costs Including Tier 2 Costs Rolled-up Costs over ~ 5 Tiers While work costs seem little at in the first place, they are critical - look in respect to esteem included - part up expenses all through the esteem chain Implications - additionally chase for pennies (e.g. line adjusting) - spread operational magnificence through the esteem chain

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Scooter Mania

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Scooters by Xootr, Stafford, PA www.xootr.com/xootr/visit/nfactorytour.htm Components Finished Xootrs Deck get together Steer get together Frame get together 3 fundamental procedures: All work paced. 1. Control and fork get together 2. Outline wheel get together 3. Deck gathering

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Xootr Roma sold at $200 May July April June March August January October November December September Weekly request 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

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Utilizations with request of 125 units/week

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Let us sum up: Cycle Time: Time to process 1 unit OT: Operating time every week D: Demand every week Requested Cycle Time = RCT = OT/D Designed Cycle Time = DCT = 1/Process limit If RCT > DCT , then we can deliver at the asked for level. Plan is doable. On the off chance that RCT < DCT , then we canNOT create at the asked for level. Plan is infeasible. Limit must be extended. Illustration: If an understudy can answer a numerous decision address in 2 minutes however gets a test with 30 addresses and is given just 30 minutes then OT=30 minutes; D=30 Desired process duration = 1 minute < < 2 minutes = Cycle time from the procedure (plan) ability

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Let us sum up: Labor Productivity Measures for a Demand-Constrained System: RCT > DCT Overall Performance Measures =Idle Time RCT Capacity i = Utilization i = DCT=a 4 a 2 Activity Time a 1 Labor Productivity Measures a 3 Direct Labor Content=a 1 +a 2 +a 3 +a 4 If one laborer for each asset: Direct Idle Time = (RCT-a 1 ) +(RCT-a 2 ) + (RCT-a 3 ) +(RCT-a 4 ) Average work usage 1 2 3 4

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Time to finish X units beginning with a void framework Time to make X units = Time through exhaust framework + = Time through discharge framework + - For consistent stream forms: "(X-1)=X" Example: what number minutes are required to make 100 ? 13+11+8=32 mins required for the principal bike (99)(13)=1287 mins required for the rest of the 99 units

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Utilizations with request of 125 units/week No specialist is completely used at the request of 125 units/week. There is an awkwardness in the measure of work done by laborers. After adjusting the sequential construction system, the procedure limit enhances . Yet, the thruput does not change as the line is request obliged .

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Utilizations with request of 200 units/week

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Labor Productivity Measures for a Capacity-Constrained System: RCT < DCT Bottleneck =Idle Time DCT=a 4 a 2 Labor Productivity Measures Activity Time If one laborer for each asset: Direct Idle Time =(DCT-a 4 )+(DCT-a 1 ) +(DCT-a 2 ) +(DCT-a 3 ) a 1 a 3 1 2 3 4 Since the framework is limit compelled, line adjusting can enhance the limit.

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Balancing an Assembly Line without Resequencing Operations 10 9 8 7 5 4 2 3 1 Cycle Time Before Line Balancing 1: Prepare link 2: Move link 3: Assemble washer 4: Apply fork, threading link end 5: Assemble Socket head screws 6: Steer stick nut 7: Brake shoe, spring, turn screw 8: Insert front wheel 9: Insert hub screw 10: Tighten hub fastener 11: Tighten brake rotate screw 12: Assemble handle-top 13: Assemble brake lever + link 14: Trim and top link 15: Place first rib 16: Insert axles and spikes 17: Insert raise wheel 18: Place second rib and deck 19: Apply grasp tape 20: Insert deck latches 21: Inspect and wipe-off 22: Apply decal and sticker 23: Insert in sack 24: Assemble container 25: Insert Xootr and manual 26: Seal container 900 800 12 700 10 11 20 9 600 19 8 18 500 Activity time [seconds] 7 26 400 17 6 25 22 5 300 16 15 24 4 23 200 14 2 3 100 13 1 21 0 Steer Frame Deck Cycle Time After Line Balancing 900 800 700 26 600 17 25 500 24 Activity time [seconds] 16 15 22 23 400 6 14 300 21 13 20 200 12 19 100 18 11 0 Steer Frame Deck

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Utilizations after Line Balancing with request of 200 units/week

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Demand of 700 units/week after line adjusting With the rate of 5.41/hour, week by week generation in 35 hours is around 189.5 units < 700 units. Limit obliged framework Capacity extension choices: Replicate the sequential construction system Selectively add laborers to the line Add generalists Add masters

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Deck get together Deck get together Deck get together Deck gathering Steer get together Steer get together Steer get together Steer get together Frame get together Frame get together Frame get together Frame get together Replicate the mechanical production system what number lines do we require? Roundup(700/189.5)=Roundup(3.69)=4 Components Finished Xootrs

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Deck get together Steer gathering Frame get together Finished Xootrs Selectively include generalists what number generalists do we require? Guide get together: 1 laborer gives 35(5.78)=202.3 units Roundup(700/202.3)=4 required for Steer get together Frame gathering: 1 laborer gives 35(5.98)=209.3 Roundup(700/209.3)=4 required for Frame get together Deck Assembly: 1 laborer give 35(5.41)=189.5 Roundup(700/189.5)=4 required for Deck get together 4 specialists 4 laborers 4 laborers Components

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Selectively include masters what number authorities do we require? Require 700 units in 2100 (=35x60) minutes or 1 unit in 180 secs. Assemble undertakings with the goal that aggregate assignment time is not exactly or equivalent to 180 secs.

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Selectively include pros Completing the table, we watch that 12 laborers are required. 200 180 160 10 140 120 9 5 3 100 Activity time [seconds] 7 80 4 60 8 2 40 4 6 1 20 0 Worker 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6

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Key-focuses to recall: Where do handle times/cost gauges cited by generation chiefs originate from? Step by step instructions to settle on work related choices valuing procuring Impact of process plan on profitability Line adjust Idle time Direct work content Calculations: Determining asset prerequisites to bolster a volume target. Assessing direct work content. Computing direct assembling cost Adjusting for sit without moving time The Importance of Process DESIGN Mechanics of a specialist paced line Mechanics of a work cell

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Summary Cycle time, asked for and planned, Idle time Capacity-obliged versus Request compelled frameworks Line adjusting Line limit extension systems

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