Assorted qualities in European Chestnut Castanea sativa Mill. .

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Diversity in European Chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.). Emily Buck. CASCADE - EU project. CASCADE at East Malling. Talk Overview. Introduce European Chestnut . Biology History Economic Value Concerns for the Species Future. Preliminary Results . Conclusions and Discussion .
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Assorted qualities in European Chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) Emily Buck

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CASCADE - EU extend CASCADE at East Malling Talk Overview Introduce European Chestnut Biology History Economic Value Concerns for the Species Future Preliminary Results Conclusions and Discussion

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Biology - Castanea sativa Mill. Characterization Family: Fagacea Genus: Castanea 13 Castanea species C. sativa , indigenous to Europe Monoecious Wind (bugs) pollinated Age and stature 30-35m, 150+ years of age \'Tree of 100 Horses\' - 2000-4000 yrs

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History Spread of C. sativa pre - glaciation Center of cause

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History Spread of C. sativa post - glaciation

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Economic Value Castanea sp: Nuts World creation: 510,702 t/yr Asian 64%, Europe 30% C.sativa & half breeds Turkey: 70,000 t/yr Castanea sativa : Wood Mainland Europe: structural and rural UK: agrarian utilize; wall 18, 788 ha in UK; 42% Coppice: stems cut 3-25 year pivot

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Global Average Temperature 14.4 ºC 13.5 1860 2000 Year Implication of territory misfortune Concerns for the Species Future water and temperature occasional variety sickness spread Phytophthora (ink ailment) Cryphonectria (chestnut curse) Climate change Human intercession determination administration rehearse

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CASCADE - Partners Dr Villani (co-ordinator), CNR-IAS Dr Vannini, University of Tuscia Dr Botta, University of Torino Dr Romane, CNRS-CEFE Dr Robin, INRA Dr Fernandez-Lopez, CIFL-Lourizan Dr Eriksson, University of Agricultural Science Dr Aravanoupoulos, Aristotele University of Thessaloniki Dr Diamandis, NAGREF Miss Russell, HRI East Malling Dr Garrod, University of Newcastle

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CASCADE Securing Gene Conservation, Adaptive, Breeding Potential and Utilization of a Model Multipurpose tree animal types ( Castanea sativa Mill.) in a Dynamic Environment fifth EU Framework Program Work program 2: Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development. Key Action: Global Change, Climate and Biodiversity. Topical Priority: Assessing and Preserving Biodiversity.

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CASCADE Main territories of research Distribution, environment and administration plant reviews, site history poll Gene dispersal and hereditary make-up utilization of sub-atomic markers East Malling included Variation in versatile characteristics QTL mapping dry season, ice resistance field execution East Malling included

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CASCADE Main ranges of research Variation in ailment resistance frequency of Phytophthora sp. resistance; vaccinate seedlings, shoots Socio - financial & ecological effect polls cultivators and buyers Strategy for coordinated preservation and usage mix examine zones 1-5

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Populations: Natural stand Coppice Orchard Extreme locales Other destinations CASCADE

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CASCADE - 3 Population Types Natural stand Orchard Coppice

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Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) - Microsatellites … .. AGAGAGAGAGAGAG … .. 33 P named preliminaries autoradiography Fluorescent groundworks ABI 3100 crystal Italy and East Malling - SSR Enriched libraries C. sativa

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Results - SSR groundwork Development 13 E ast M alling C astanea s ativa (EMCs) SSR preliminaries

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1 2 4 7 3 5 6 12 8 9 11 10 UK Italian Results - CASCADE SSR Mapping 12 linkage bunches (chromosomes), 829 cM 458 markers: RAPDs, ISSR, Isoenzymes, AFLP, STS, SSRs

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1 2 4 7 3 5 6 12 8 9 11 10 UK Not mapped Italian Results - SSRs for Diversity Screen Screening differences: 8 mapped SSRs, 3 not mapped SSRs

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CASCADE - Diversity Screen Application of polymorphic SSRs Total of 11: 6 East Malling, UK 5 University of Torino, Italy Screen CASCADE ecologically outrageous destinations Natural, coppice and plantation populaces 8 trees and 20 seeds from every populace Total of 3,864 specimens

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Results - East Malling Diversity Screen 6 polymorphic SSR loci Total of 81 alleles discovered as such

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Spain UK France Italy Greece Results Preliminary connections between people: Natural populaces UK populaces

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Spain UK France Italy Greece Results Natural populaces & UK Greece populaces discrete gatherings Individuals from Central and Northern Greece in isolated gatherings Central Greece Northern Greece

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Spain UK France Italy Greece Results Natural populaces & UK Spain Northern and Southern Spain Group Southern Italy amass, from Sicily UK and French for the most part scattered all through Southern Italy

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Conclusions and Discussion Natural Two particular gatherings from Northern and Central Greece assorted qualities inside Greek populaces low variety in flexibility tests: Greek tests low versatility one of a kind gathering?, helpless to environmental change? Particular gathering from Southern Italy, scattered people from Northern Italy differing qualities inside Southern Italy populace low differences inside Northern Italy populace higher similitudes tests in Spain, France and UK Romans spread from this district?

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Conclusions and Discussion Natural Group of Spanish people assorted qualities inside Spain populaces low? a few specimens scattered, spread from refugia? French examples scattered characteristic spread/presented from assorted Italian site, or Spanish refugia

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Conclusions and Discussion Orchard and Coppice Diversity inside Orchards and Coppice populaces fluctuates locale dependant might be consequence of various determination weight and history of given populace? Assorted qualities in UK populaces bizarre various for minor populace numerous imports from various ranges at various times? Be that as it may, extremely helpless to Phytophthora (Ink infection) Additional information from different markers

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Acknowledgments PhD advisor: Karen Russell PhD administrators: David Blakesley Christine Cahalan Dave Moodley, Suad AlMarrooei, Bruce Sutherland, Dan Sargent, Bobbie Maxted, everybody in the lab CASCADE Project co-ordinator: Fiorella Villani Italy: R. Botta, D. Marioni, M. Casasoli Greece: P. Aravanoupoulos, S. Diamandis Spain: J. Fernandez-Lopez France: F. Romane, C. Robin, A. Grossmann, T. Barreneche

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