ASTR 3520 Observations & Instrumentation II: Spectroscopy Lecture 1 IntroductionSlide 2
Overview John Bally C323A Duane 492 5786 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Office hours: Th after class (2:00 PM) Wed (2:00 PM) Adam Ginsburg C329 Duane 303 667 3805 email@example.com Office Hours: Mon, Tues 11:00 AM or by arrangement Student & Teacher Introductions:Slide 3
Organization Review course structure, substance, and Syllabus Observing Projects: Stellar, nebular spectroscopy, semester ventures, labs, homework. Apache Point Observatory Field Trip: - 5 - 6 days/4 - 5 evenings - Covered by Course Fees - VLA, NSO, APO - Last week of Oct. (relies on upon TAC) Observing Proposals for Semester venture due end of Sept. 24" Observing Groups 5 bunches/3 to 4 each. - Each gathering must have finally 1 experienced spectator Start spectrograph outline (once-over softly)Slide 4
Spectroscopy: Astronomy => Astrophysics Light as a wave marvel: = c Geometrical optics => wave optics Diffraction ~ /D Interference: n = D sin n = 1,2,3,… Deep bits of knowledge into the way of particles, atoms: Discrete wavelengths => Discrete vitality levels Electrons stable just in specific circles. Obstruction of electron waves! = h/p = h/mv :de Broglie waves All matter has wave-like conduct on adequately little scale!Slide 5
Spectrograph Focal Plane collimator camera locator Dispersing component Slit Telescope SpectrographSlide 6
SBO Spectrograph outline Slit & Decker: Restrict approaching light Spatial bearing versus Ghostly bearing Collimator & Camera: Transfer picture of opening onto indicator. Grinding: Disperse light: scattering => phantom determination What decides ghastly determination & scope? - Slit-width - Grating properties: N forests , request number - Camera/collimator amplification (central length proportion) - Detector pixel size and number of pixels.Slide 7
Types of Spectroscopy Electromagnetic Waves: Emission, ingestion Visual, close IR., FIR, Radio, UV/X-beam, gamma-beam - Solids, fluids, gasses, plasmas - Emission, retention - Spectral line, sub-atomic groups, continua: - Thermal (~LTE, blackbody, dark body): - Non-warm (masers, synchrotron, … ) - Electronic, vibrational, rotational moves. - Effects of B (Zeeman), E ( Stark), movement (Doppler), weight (impacts), common life-time (line widths) - Radiative Transfer (optical profundity) Other sorts (not secured in this course): NMR Raman Phosprescence/Fluorecence Astro-moleculeSlide 8
Review of Some Basics c = n x l Angular determination: q = 1.22 l/D radians 206,265" in a radian E = h n F = L/4 p d 2 AZ, El, RA, Dec, Ecliptic, Galactic Siderial time, Hour Angle G = 6.67 x 10 - 8 (c.g.s) c = 3 x 10 cm/sec, k = 1.38 x 10 - 16 h = 6.626 x 10 - 27 m H ~ m proton = 1.67 x 10 - 24 grams m e = 0.91 x 10 - 27 grams eV = 1.602 x 10 - 12 erg Luminosity of Sun = 4 x 10 33 erg/sec Mass of the Sun = 2 x 10 33 gramsSlide 9
The Physics of EM Radiation Light: l, n - l n = c = 2.998 x 10 cm/s (in vacuum) - E = h n Photon vitality (erg) 1 erg sec - 1 = 10 - 7 Watt h = 6.626 x 10 - 27 (c.g.s) 1 eV = 1.602 x 10 - 12 erg - p = E/c = h/l Photon force - l = h/p = h/mv deBroglie wavelength Planck Function: B (T) Emission, retention, continua Discrete vitality levels: HydrogenSlide 10
Refraction: Snell\'s Law: n 1 sin( d 1 ) = n 2 sin( d 2 ) d 1 n 1 n 1 = refractive file in locale 1 n 2 = refractive list in area 2 n = c/v = l vacuum/l medium d 2 n 2Slide 12
Basic Lens formulae:Slide 13
Basic Mirror formulae:Slide 14
L d Diffraction: Light spreads as q = l/d In the `far field\' given by L = d 2/lSlide 15
2 opening obstruction Constructive DestructiveSlide 16
2 opening impedance Anti-reflection coveringSlide 18
Multi-layer obstruction channel:Slide 19
Diffraction grinding:Slide 20
Fermat\'s Principle: d(optical way length) = 0 Diffraction grinding: request # wavelength diffraction ang le groove dividing rate ang leSlide 22
CCD Imaging Review CCD nuts and bolts - How CCDs work - CCD properties Dark, level, and inclination outlines Image-scales - central length, pixel-scale, FOV Review photometry rudiments - The size framework - Calibration - Atmospheric impacts; Air mass, shading termsSlide 23
Subaru 8m (Mauna Kea): Suprime Prime Focus CCD Mosaic 8192 x 8192 pixels utilizing SITe chips (15 m pixels)Slide 24
Typical Raw picture With a CCD Cosmic beams Bad pixels starsSlide 25
CCDs (Charge-Coupled Device) Properties - Quantum productivity (QE): => 90% - Gain: G = e -/ADU - Dark current: 1 e -/hr to 10 3 e -/sec warm discharge: => Cool to –20 to –150 C - Read Noise: enhancer read-out vulnerability 3 e - to 100 e - per read - Spatial consistency: Bad pixels, sections: ~ << 1% pick up & QE varieties e = h n - E 0Slide 26
CCDs Properties - Cosmic Rays: 5 to > 10 3 e - created by each charged molecule more often than not impacts 1 or couple of pixels. non-gaussian charge circulation (not quite the same as stellar picture or PSF) - Well profundity: 5 x 10 4 to 10 6 e - Pixel size: 6 m to 30 m - Array size: 512 x 512 to 4096 x 4096Slide 28
Dark current: => coolingSlide 29
MOSAIC CCD On KPNO 0.9m Vacuum Dewar LN 2 (77K) Controller Filters & sliderSlide 30
5 10 0 Charge Transfer V 0 10 0 5Slide 31
Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) Output intensifierSlide 32
Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) Output speakerSlide 33
Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) ReadSlide 34
Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) ReadSlide 35
CCD Corrections/Calibrations Read commotion: inclination outlines - 0 second presentation Dark edges: - Same span as science introduction with screen shut Flat fields: - Dome pads - Twilight pads - Super-sky pads Standard stars - At a few air-masses A = sec (z) = 1/cos(z) zSlide 36
CCD Corrections/Calibrations Types of picture blends: IRAF undertaking: imarith image1 (+,- ,*,/) image2 yield imcombine @list_in yield - Average: 1/N S I(n) - Mode: Most basic information esteem - Median: Value in center of extent useful for dismissal of anomalies (e.g CRs) Combine (middle) 3,5,7,… .. An odd # - inclination outlines - level casingsSlide 37
CCD Corrections/Calibrations Reduction: I(raw) - median(bias) I(reduced) = standard [median(Flat – bias)] Note: Bias can be a Dark if hot pixels/or dim current is expansiveSlide 38
Flat Field Example star astronomical beam Hot pixels star Bias or dim level Raw science outline star enormous beam star Dark subtracted outlineSlide 39
Flat Field Example star grandiose beam star vast beam Flat edgeSlide 40
Flat Field Example inestimable beam Flat edge 1 Normalized, dim subtracted, middle of > 3 level edgesSlide 41
Flat Field Example enormous beam star Science outline 1 Normalized level edge star Reduced science outlineSlide 42
Photometry Basics: Vega sizes: m( l ) = - 2.5 log [F( l )/F Vega ( l )] F( l ) = Counts on source F Vega ( l ) = Counts on Vega A = sec (z) = 1/cos(z) zSlide 43
Type of Spectra Continuum: - Blackbody: B n (T) - without free, free-bound - Non-warm: Synchrotron radiation - Compton diffusing Line & Band E dipole, B diplole, E quadrupole fine structure, hyperfine structure - electronic moves - vibrational moves - rotational moveSlide 44
Types of Spectra: Hot, Opaque media Nebulae StarsSlide 45
The Planck Function: Black-body radiation (erg s - 1 cm - 2 Hz - 1 2 p sr - 1 ) Wien: B( n ,T) = (2 p h n 3/c 2 ) e - h n/kT Rayleigh-Jeans: B( n ,T) = 2kT/l 2Slide 46
The Planck Function: Black-body radiation Wien Rayleigh-JeansSlide 48
Spectrum of Hydrogen (& H-like particles) Ionization (n to unendingness): E = 13.6 eV Transitions: E = h n = E u – E l Ionization at E = 13.6 eV or not as much as l = 912 Angstroms a b g Balmer = R [ 1/n l 2 – 1/n u 2 ] R = 3.288 x 10 15 Hz b a LymanSlide 49
Bohr model: Allowed circles mvr = nh/2 p Coulomb Force: Ze 2/r 2 = mv 2/r Thus, (take out v) r = Ze 2/mv 2 = n 2 h 2/4 p 2 Ze 2 m Energy E = - (1/2) Ze 2/r = - 2 p 2 Z 2 e 4 m/n 2 h 2Slide 51
Adam Block: 16" Meade + SBIG ST10E + AO7Slide 52
The Orion Nebula (M42)Slide 54
Outline & Goals: Tues, 18
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