Athens in the Greek Period.


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Athens in the Greek Period 4 th – 2 nd century BCE "Hellenistic" Characterizes the time of Macedonian principle Endures from 4 th century BCE (when Philip II routs Athens) until 2 nd century BCE Philip II of Macedon Pioneer of Macedonia Needed to extend Macedonian region
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Slide 1

Athens in the Hellenistic Period 4 th – 2 nd century BCE

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"Hellenistic" Defines the time of Macedonian tenet Lasts from 4 th century BCE (when Philip II massacres Athens) until 2 nd century BCE

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Philip II of Macedon Leader of Macedonia Wanted to extend Macedonian region 338 - Defeated Thebans and Athenians at Battle of Chaironeia in Boeotia Respected Athen’s recognized history

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Athenians were still unfriendly toward Macedonians Posted a declaration in 337 BCE: “If anybody ascend against the Demos for oppression or join in setting up the oppression or oust the Demos of Athenians or the majority rule government of Athens, whoever kills him who does any of these things should be irreproachable. Philip II was killed 336 BCE, yet not in Athens

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Alexander the Great Succeeded Philip Was likewise disposed to approach Athens with deference Busy with victories in the east

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New Developments in Athens Athenians had the capacity recuperate some lost fortunes Mined silver at Laureion toward the southeast Able to assemble: New Stadium for Panathenaic amusements Theater in Precinct of Dionysus Some new structures at the Agora

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New Stadium 330 - Lycurgus (vital community figure) had new stadium fabricated To the city\'s southeast Simple structure however was manufactured over later 2 nd century AD by Herodes Atticus 1896 for present day Olympic diversions

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Stadium today

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Theater of Dionysus On the southeast incline of acropolis Originally constructed around 500 BCE Lycurgus fabricates first lasting stone theater in Athens Skene (foundation building) was made of stone Roof and ordered faã§ade 46 m long Auditorium could hold group of onlookers of 14,000 Divided into wedges by stairways Also built another sanctuary toward the south of more seasoned, littler sanctuary to Dionysus Eleuthereus

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Theater prior and then afterward

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New Building Endeavors at Agora Fountainhouse Klepsydra/Waterclock Southwest corner of square Major expansion to Athenian water supply Possibly checked time of dry season Against north face of old lawcourt Flotation gadget measured water level as it depleted Kept time for trials, business sector opening and shutting, and so forth

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Waterclock

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Temple of Apollo Patroos Along west side of Agora Small plain structure Ionic segments in antis 10 x 16.5 m Contained a few statues of Apollo by different craftsmen

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Alexander kicked the bucket 323 BCE Successors war over domains Lamian Wars Athenians and different Greeks revolt Short-lived 317 – Cassander additions control of Athens Aristocratic government 307/6 – Demetrios Poliorcetes Liberates Athens Democracy is restored, new tribes

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Civil Wars 3 rd century BCE 307 – 261 BCE – government changes hands 7 times Disputes between star Macedonians and patriots Bouleuterion hints at harm Almost no new structures in city Square Peristyle – never completed Arsenal

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Philip V of Macedon: More War New war between Philip V and Greeks toward end of 3 rd century First Macedonian War Romans supported Athens against Macedonians Philip assaulted and harmed structures/graves outside city dividers 2 nd century: Rome routs Philip Ushered in time of relative security and autonomy in Athens With new steadiness, could embrace metro building ventures

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Reorganization of Agora Attempt to force feeling of request and consistency Stoa of Attalos II New South Stoa (South Stoa II) Middle Stoa East building New range known as the south square

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2 nd century Changes in the Agora Before After

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Stoa of Attalos II of Pergamon Show of appreciation Two-storey Marble faã§ade, dividers of stone from Peiraeus , earthenware rooftop Rooms behind corridors were most likely shops Stoa reproduced in the 20 th century

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Outer ground floor segments are Doric Inner ground-floor and upstairs are Ionic

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Middle Stoa – built ca. 180 BCE Built at right edge to Stoa of Attalos Single-story Doric corridors on all sides Inner ionic corridor separated stoa into two paths Middle Stoa , East building, and South Stoa II to shape South Square

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East building Connected to both South Stoa II and Middle Stoa Divided in two length-wise Eastern segment confronted Panathenaic way and comprised of one room Western segment confronted the Agora\'s heading and had five square rooms Helped structure another zone called the South Square

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South Stoa II Parallel to the Middle Stoa Doric single-aisled stoa North side 30 segments Walls on south, east, west sides Replaced a before structure (South Stoa I) Was calculated uniquely in contrast to the prior building An endeavor to regularize the range Connected to old law court building at west end

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South Square Area stopped by Middle Stoa, South Stoa, and East building What was capacity? Initially named as a business public square New structures were raised here pretty much as old law court fenced in areas were surrendered for Stoa of Attalos In the center there are two rectangular establishments for little sanctuaries dated to 100 BCE

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Closing contemplations … When Athens was free from remote guideline, metro construction modeling prospered Conversely, amid times of war and shakiness there was minimal design improvement Agora was a focal point of engineering advancement in Hellenistic period

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Bibliography Camp, John M. – The Athenian Agora: Excavations in the Heart of Classical Athens Tomlinson, Richard – From Mycenae to Constantinople Wycherley, R.E. – The Stones of Athens Perseus Building Catalog: http://www.pe

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