Bacillus anthracis.

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Bacillus anthracis The Bacillus anthracis bacillus, Bacillus anthracis, was the primary bacterium appeared to be the reason for an ailment Koch's Propose In 1877, Robert Koch developed the living being in immaculate society, exhibited its capacity to frame endospores, and
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Bacillus anthracis The Bacillus anthracis bacillus, Bacillus anthracis, was the first bacterium appeared to be the reason for a sickness Koch’s Postulate In 1877, Robert Koch developed the creature in unadulterated society, exhibited its capacity to frame endospores, and delivered exploratory Bacillus anthracis by infusing it into creatures. Bacillus anthracis is a sickness of trained and wild creatures Men experience the ill effects of Bacillus anthracis every so often because of close contact with contaminated creature or creature items BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Bacillus anthracis Gram positive bars Capsulated ( Protein) – Capsule structure in creature tissue and in exceptional research facility condition ( 5% CO 2 ) Forms endospore, halfway found, don\'t frame in creature tissues MacFadyean ( Polychrome methylene blue) stain blue bacilli with purple container Aerobic/Facultative anerobe Grows on all conventional medium (Medusa head appearance-uneven wavy edge) Inverted hide tree appearance in fluid medium Biochemicals : Catalase +, decreases nitrate to nitrite, lecithinase+, glucose, maltose, sucrose, trehalose matured BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Robert Koch\'s unique micrographs of the Bacillus anthracis bacillus BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Bacillus anthracis. Gram stain. The cells have trademark s quared finishes. The endospores are ellipsoidal formed and found midway in the sporangium. The spores are very refractile to light and impervious to recoloring. BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Bacillus cereus Genotypically and phenotypically it is fundamentally the same to Bacillus cereus, which is found in soil living spaces far and wide Bacillus thuringiensis. Stage Photomicrograph of vegetative cells, intracellular spores (light) and parasporal precious stones (dim). BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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McFadyean\'s response demonstrating short chains of Bacillus anthracis cells lying among amorphous,disintegrated capsular material. White platelets can likewise be seen . BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Differential Characteristics of B. anthracis B. cereus and B. thuringiensis Differential Characteristics of B. anthracis B. cereus and B. thuringiensis BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Physical properties ( strategies for disinfecting) SPORES SURVIVE FOR MANY YEARS ( DRY STATE AND SOIL ) Moist warmth kills – Vegetative cells 60 0 C X 30 minutes Spores 100 0 C X 10 minutes 4% Formaldehyde kills spores 4% KMnO 4 kills spores Hypochlorite ( 0.5%) financially accessible kills spores BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Epiedemiology Distribution worldwide Not basic in West. Basic in Africa ( Zimbabwe), S.E. Asia, China, South America, Turkey, Pakistan, India Human to human or creature to creature transmission is uncommon ( not infectious) Grazing creatures get to be tainted through ingestion of spores in the dirt ( Carcasses turn into the source) Epidemic : A. Spread to touching geographic regions by contaminated creature B. Non adjoining geographic ranges by -gnawing flies ( Zimbabwe) -Vultures -Contaminated surface water pool BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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INDIA Largest live stock populace on the planet Incidence is not precisely known ( Sporadic cases reported) Pondicherry ( JIPMER) - 30 human cases reported ( Mostly Cutaneous, Septicemic or Meningeal) Vellore ( CMC)- 49 human cases Chittor ( Rajasthan)- 30 human cases Tirupati ( Andhrapradesh)- 25 human cases Midnapur ( WB)- 22 human cases BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Pathogenesis Endospores ( Abrasion, inward breath, ingestion) Death Introduced Septicemia Phagocytosed by Macrophages 10 7 to 10 8/ml Regional LNs Blood stream Multiply in Lymphatics Germinate inside Macrophages Release Vegetative Forms BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Clinically three types of Human Bacillus anthracis happen Cutaneous Bacillus anthracis Pulmonary Bacillus anthracis Intestinal Bacillus anthracis Broadly can be characterized into Non Industrial/Agricultural ( Through tainted creatures): Cutaneous Bacillus anthracis Rarely intestinal Bacillus anthracis Industrial Anthrax ( Through creature items): Mostly through creature items( fleeces, hair, conceals, bones) Likely to create Cutaneous and aspiratory Bacillus anthracis ( inward breath) BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Cutaneous Anthrax Mainly in experts( Veterinarian, butcher, Zoo manager Spores contaminate skin-a trademark thick edema creates at the site (Papule-Vesicle-Malignant Pustule-Necrotic ulcer) 80-90% recuperate suddenly ( 2-6wks) 0-20% dynamic malady – create septicemia 95-99% of all human Bacillus anthracis happen as cutaneous Bacillus anthracis Intestinal Anthrax Due to in ingestion of contaminated corpses Mucosal sore to the lymphatic framework Rare in created nations Extremely high death rate BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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PULMONARY ANTHRAX Require high infective measurement ( > 10,000 spores) Acquired through inward breath of spores ( Bioterrorism - vaporized) Present with side effects of serious respiratory disease( High fever & Chest torment) Haemorrhagic mediastinitis Progress to septicemia quickly 10 7 to 10 9 bacilli/ml of blood at the season of death Mortality rate is high > 95% BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF ANTHRAX CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX Boils, Erysipelas, Cutaneous TB, Leprosy, Plague, Vaccinia, Rickettsial pox, tularemia INTESTINAL ANTHRAX Typhoid fever, Acute Gastroenteritis, Tularemia, Peritonitis, Peptic ulcer, Mechanical deterrent PULMONARY ANTHRAX Viral pneumonia, Mycoplasma. Psittacosis, Legionnaires sickness, Q fever, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, Silicosis, Sarcoidosis Meningeal Anthrax : Sometime show as meningitis D/D : Bacterial meningitis Aseptic meningitis BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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VIRULENCE FACTORS Anthrax Toxin – Complex of proteins ( every one of the parts thermolabile) A. Defensive antigen B. Edema variable C. Deadly Factor Protein case – Poly D Glutamic corrosive case - Inhibits phagocytosis ( Unencapsulated strains – nonpathogenic) Anthrax Toxin Protective antigen : Binds plasma film of target cells Cleaved to 2 sections ( cell trypsin or proteases) Larger piece is appended to cell surface – tying area for LF & EF Specific receptor interceded endocytosis of LF & EF BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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EDEMA FACTOR ( Edema Factor + Protective Ag = Edema poison) Calmodulin subordinate adenyl cyclase Increased cell cAMP Edema Impaired Neutrophil capacity Depletes ATP from Macrophages LETHAL FACTOR ( Lethal Factor + Protective Ag = Lethal poison) Zinc metallo proteases that inactivates protein kinases Stimulates Macrophages – TNF alpha and IL – 1 beta – Shock & Death because of oxygen exhaustion, auxiliary stun, expanded vascular porousness, respiratory disappointment and heart disappointment. Sudden and startling. BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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Virulence of Anthrax bacillus is because of vicinity of two plasmids px01 – Toxin encoding plasmid - 110 megadalton - temperature-touchy plasmid px02 - Capsule encoding plasmid ( 3 qualities - top A, top B, top C) - 60 megadalton plasmid - amalgamation of poly glutamic corrosive case Both plasmids are needed for destructiveness - loss of either - constriction - qualities communicated just in vegetative state Pasteur strain - Encapsulated Sterne strain – Non exemplified BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS Few focuses to recall Anthrax is not profoundly infectious Cutaneous Bacillus anthracis is not deadly and is promptly treated with regular anti-infection agents ID for human pneumonic/intestinal contamination is > 10,000 spores SPECIMEN TO COLLECT ( HUMAN ANTHRAX) Disposable gloves, covers, overalls, boots, head rigging and dust veil Disposable things – Autoclave and burn Cutaneous Bacillus anthracis : Vesicular exudate – swabs and fine tube suction Intestinal Bacillus anthracis: - Stool test - confine – guinea pig immunization - Blood( venipuncture) smear examination for bacilli - Peritoneal liquid for society - Paired sera for Ab Pulmonary Bacillus anthracis: If mellow ailment ( No example) Severely sick – Blood , sputum, serum tests for Ab BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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SAMPLES FROM ANIMAL Sudden demise of creature in regions where Bacillus anthracis was accounted for before Carcasses 1 or 2 day old Aspirate blood - MacFadyean stain for bacilli Direct exhibition by IFA Direct plating on blood agar Putrefying cadavers Blood, tissue and conceal Culture on specific medium Soil test from the territories where the corpse as lying Serological measure ELISA: taking into account Bacillus anthracis poison ( PA, LF and EF) for routine affirmation and vaccine reaction) Molecular systems ( Only in the referral research centers): -RFLP -PCR Fingerprinting Animal Inoculation : Guinea pig and mice vaccination Culture is affirmed by gamma phage lysis ( PlyG lysin compound g phage) BImal K Das, Microbiology, AIIMS

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IMMUNITY TO ANTHRAX Resistance against Bacillus anthracis fluctuate from species to species -Human are somewhat insusceptible to Bacillus anthracis Resistance can be of two sorts -Resistance to the foundation of disease however delicate to poison -Resistance to poison yet defenseless to disease Animals surviving actually gained Bacillus anthracis are safe to reinfection Protective antibodies against the Bacillus anthracis poison a

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