BANGLADESH: Empowerment effects of Social Safety Net Programs on ladies .

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BANGLADESH: Empowerment impacts of Social Safety Net Programs on women. Gil Yaron World Bank Consultant PREM, World Bank, September 2008. Why measure empowerment?. The WDR 2000/1 identified “empowerment” as an important development objective
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BANGLADESH: Empowerment effects of Social Safety Net Programs on ladies Gil Yaron World Bank Consultant PREM, World Bank, September 2008

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Why measure strengthening? The WDR 2000/1 distinguished "strengthening" as a vital advancement objective "Strengthening" is firmly connected to other corporate motivation of "social responsibility," and the "interest for good administration" Empowerment upgrades individuals\' decisions and openings While a real objective all by itself, prove recommends that strengthening enhances neediness decrease results

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The Bangladesh PRSP underscores the: Role of Social Safety Net Programs (SSNP) in diminishing destitution Need to concentrate on the strengthening of ladies One SSNP (VGD) expressly plans to improve the salary gaining limit and confidence of ultra-poor and nourishment shaky ladies, government authorities recognize ladies\' strengthening as an "extra target" of another program (PESP). Other SSNP that give sustenance or pay to ultra poor ladies may well affect their strengthening The considerable writing on ladies\' strengthening in Bangladesh does not treat SSNP in detail It was conceivable to investigate this issue by adding TFESSD assets to a current JSDF-supported review of SSNP being executed by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics Bangladesh - inspiration

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Bangladesh - setting The point of the study was to quantify the strengthening impacts on ladies of the accompanying SSNP: Food-for-work (FFW) Vulnerable Group Development (VGD) Primary Education Stipend program (PESP) Vulnerable Group Feeding (VGF) Old Age Allowance Scheme Allowance for Widowed, Deserted, and Destitute Women Allowance for Distressed Disabled Persons

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Operationalizing strengthening Empowerment: the association of office and opportunity structure Agency can be measured through intermediaries - the material, monetary, social, human, instructive, mental and different resources that individuals convey to accomplish their objectives Opportunity structure: the formal and casual establishments ("principles of the diversion") that oblige or encourage individuals\' capacity to practice office

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Bangladesh – system diagram FGD (72) SSI examination Household Survey (2741) Community Survey (69) Beneficiaries: requested logit All: Propensity score coordinating Women\'s Survey (2741)

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Bangladesh – Empowerment markers 1 Women\'s poll: Control over resources (spouse, self, joint, others) Participation in town gatherings and races (& if not, why not) Participation in family basic leadership (h, s, j, o) including joining associations, financial aspects & tyke related Autonomy (going to & buys) & aggressive behavior at home

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Bangladesh – Empowerment markers 2 Household survey strengthening module e.g. Programs have: no effect | a little contrast | a major distinction | a negative distinction Being ready to determine question Membership of any nearby gatherings e.g. clubs or samitties Being ready to pick who you vote in favor of in races Being ready to grumble to government authorities Participating being developed undertakings Being ready to get perfect water Access to news and data Being ready to pick what work you do Keeping youngsters in school

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Bangladesh – PSM philosophy Standard PSM approach Unobserved assurance & social capital Biased results SSNP Empowerment Observable intermediaries on data & going to recipient gatherings + components influencing "campaigning" Our PSM approach SSNP Empowerment Unbiased results

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PSM usage PSM execution took after standard work on: Estimating the inclination score for each SSNP Running adjusting tests utilizing STATA PSCORE Matching utilizing NN (with substitution, 3 nearest coordinates, forcing basic support & trimming 2% of perceptions) Checking noteworthy results with LLR coordinating NN matches have hetroskedastic-steady S.E LLR matches have boostrapped S.E.

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Methodology – strengthening We recognize resource based office, (for example, enhanced self-regard) from real strengthening results, (for example, more noteworthy self-governance or more basic leadership in the family) Source: Alsop, Bertelsen and Holland (2006)

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Other methodological issues We recognize: female-headed families in which the female heads are formally widowed, isolated, separated or relinquished ; and those where ladies run the family unit without portraying themselves in these terms Need to preclude the impact of various SSNP (not intended to happen but rather 3% of the specimen dropped)

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Bangladesh – discoveries 1 SSNP humbly add to ladies\' financial strengthening FFW seems to have less monetary effect than do different projects SSNP biggerly affect keeping youngsters in school than on access to credit, land, water or power Old Age/different remittances pay for training of kids inside the more distant family & PESP is utilized as a part of different ranges - e.g. remittances are fungible PESP is mainstream yet could be better focused on

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Bangladesh – discoveries 2 FGDs specifically demonstrate that SSNP do improve self-esteem and self-regard, and increment ladies\' entrance to data. However, - expanded self-regard and access to data did not convert into strengthening as measured by discernible changes in conduct . Conduct change relies on upon changes in the standards administering worthy female conduct. Ought to spouses be a piece of VGD limit building? Development of the Food-for-Work and Money-for-Work plans was the most much of the time voiced demand from FGDs, in spite of the fact that these projects have the minimum monetary effect. How to plan better workfare programs?

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Bangladesh – discoveries 3 SSNP had little impact on ladies\' social or urban strengthening (i.e. on independence, association in family basic leadership and frequency of abusive behavior at home). Maturity Allowances and VGD may really bring about negative effects, maybe on the grounds that expanding ladies\' financial resources triggers a moderate reaction from poor and inadequately instructed spouses. Assist inside and out subjective investigation is required on this issue .

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Findings 4 The mix of FGD and quantitative overview methods functioned admirably. In a perfect world, the poll outline would have based on before FGDs The Empowerment Framework origination of strengthening as the result of benefit based organization associating with establishment based open door structure is helpful. It is vital to concentrate on accepted female headed families, not just those which distinguish themselves as "widowed, isolated, separated and surrendered".

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