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FLAG - OZONE FLAG Ozone Subgroup Bob Musselman, Subgroup Leader – FS-R Miguel Flores – NPS Tonnie Maniero – NPS Rich Fisher – FS-WO Suraj Ahuja – FS-R5 Janice Peterson – FS-R6 Trent Procter – FS-R5 Bill Jackson – FS-R8 Jim Renfro – NPS Judy Rocchio – NPS Andrzej Bytnerowicz – FS-R
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Banner - OZONE

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FLAG Ozone Subgroup Bob Musselman, Subgroup Leader – FS-R Miguel Flores – NPS Tonnie Maniero – NPS Rich Fisher – FS-WO Suraj Ahuja – FS-R5 Janice Peterson – FS-R6 Trent Procter – FS-R5 Bill Jackson – FS-R8 Jim Renfro – NPS Judy Rocchio – NPS Andrzej Bytnerowicz – FS-R Dave Peterson – USGS-BRD Bill Hogsett – EPA

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Ozone Effects On Vegetation Agricultural harvests Yield, Productivity Leaf corruption Quality

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Ozone Effects On Vegetation Agricultural products Native plants Yield, Productivity Growth Leaf putrefaction Leaf rot Quality Ecosystems structure, structure

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Environmental and Genetic Differences Agricultural harvests Native plants Small variability Large variability

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Variables Influencing Plant Response to Ozone Nutrition, essentially nitrogen Species/genotype Moisture: relative mugginess and soil dampness Solar radiation, temperature Day length/photoperiod Regional climatic contrasts Age of plant, phenological condition of advancement Population/biological system cooperations

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Injury and Damage Injury: All physical or organic reactions to contaminations, for example, changes in digestion system, lessened photosynthesis, leaf rot, untimely leaf drop, and chlorosis. Harm: Reduction in the planned utilize or estimation of the natural or physical asset; for instance, financial creation, environmental structure and capacity, stylish quality, and organic or hereditary assorted qualities that may be changed through the effect of contaminations.

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Ozone Exposure Definitions Exposure – ozone present in encompassing air Dose – ozone taken up into plant tissue Flux – the rate at which plant surfaces assimilate ozone Effective flux – flux short guarded reaction Defenses –passive and dynamic

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Ozone Metrics Related to Vegetation Preferentially weights higher fixations Cumulative all through developing season 24 hour introduction

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Ozone Metrics Related to Vegetation AOT40: a ccumulated presentation o ver a t hreshold of 40 ppb. (The entirety of every single hourly focus in the wake of subtracting 40 ppb from each hourly esteem.) SUM06: aggregate of every hourly fixation  60 ppb (0. 06 ppm) N100: number of focuses  100 ppb W126: sigmoidal weighted capacity, ppm-hrs W i = 1/[1 + M x e – (A x Ci) ] (where M = 4403 and A = 126 ppm - 1 )

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Daytime Exposure to Ozone Daylight hours AOT40 in Europe;  50 W/m 2 12 hours SUM06, suggested by EPA 8 am – 7:59 pm 24 hours Some European, U.S. Researchers

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Seasonal Exposure to Ozone 3-Month May, June, July (AOT40 - crops) June, July, August (U.S.) Running 3-month (AOT40) Growing Season April through September (AOT40 - woodlands) April through October (U.S.)

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FLAG RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EVALUATING OZONE IMPACTS FLAG has chosen the W126 metric as most suitable to depict ozone introduction for vegetation. The metric depends on a 24-hour, occasional (April through October) time of estimation. Banner likewise perceives the significance of considering the quantity of hours in this timeframe more noteworthy than or equivalent to 100 ppb (N100) given the significance of top focuses in plant reaction.

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W126 (ppm-hrs) and N100 values for harm for chose species. Name W126 N100 Table mountain pine 20.0 2 Sweetgum 5.6 3 Sycamore 31.2 89 Winged sumac 3.3 5 Black cherry 11.5 10 Tall milkweed 0.3 0 Black-peered toward susan 12.8 50 Dwarf dandelion 0.3 0 Yellow buckeye 4.7 3 Virginia pine 30.0 50 Cutleaf coneflower 5.5 3

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W126 (ppm-hrs) and N100 values for 10% development misfortune for chose species. Name W126 N100 Aspen 259 6.4 4 Aspen wild 71.4 243 Black Cherry 6.5 1 Red Maple 85.4 245 Whorled-wood aster 8.2 10 Yellow poplar 14.4 4 Eastern white pine 30.2 66 Sugar maple 44.7 131 Sycamore 15.4 27 Winged sumac 9.7 4

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FLAG RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EVALUATING OZONE IMPACTS NO x and VOC emanations are of concern in light of the fact that they are antecedents of ozone. Current data shows most FLM territories are NO x - restricted most or constantly. Until we focus such is not the situation, we will concentrate on control of NO x outflows.

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FLAG RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EVALUATING OZONE IMPACTS FLAG concurs with EPA and others that solitary source-receptor displaying for ozone is not possible as of now. FLM activities or particular solicitations on a grant application will, along these lines, be founded on the current air contamination circumstance at the FLM area(s) that may be influenced by the source. FLM reaction will rely on upon (1) regardless of whether ozone phytotoxic impacts have been archived in the zone, and (2) regardless of whether ozone presentation levels happening in the territory have been appeared to be phytotoxic.

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a . The FLM may suggest one or a greater amount of the accompanying: - That the proposed source use stricter (than BACT) controls ( e.g. , Lowest Achievable Emission Rate [LAER]) - That the proposed source acquire NOx discharge balances that will advantage the conceivably influenced FLM zone (as showed by scattering displaying). - That the allowing power ( i.e. state or EPA) conduct provincial displaying to recognize sources that are contributing fundamentally to ozone-related effects in the FLM range, and that the allowing power then attempt activities important to lessen outflows from those sources ( e.g. , SIP amendment). b . That the candidate figure the ozone presentation for vegetation (utilizing the W126 and N100 measurements) for the influenced FLM area(s) where such data is not effectively accessible. c . That the allowing power or candidate store post-development encompassing ozone observing in or close to the FLM zone. d . That the candidate direct or store post-development ozone impacts observing/examination in the FLM range.

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Ozone Information Provided in FLAG Report List of plant species touchy to ozone for foliar rot List of ozone delicate plant species happening in chose Class I regions List of agent high and low W126 and N100 values for chose NPS and FSW zones Short rundown of W126 and N100 qualities bringing on foliar harm; and creating 10% development misfortune for chose plant species

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Additional Information Needed Inventory of plant species in FLM territories Identification of ozone touchy plant species Monitoring of ozone in FLM ranges Active screens – vital for dynamics of introduction Passive screens – minimal effort, demonstrates ozone stacking Source/receptor displaying

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Ozone Air Pollution Web Sites U.S. EPA ozone data: gov/paddle/oaqps/cleanair.html NPS ozone data:; Ozone impacts research, USDA ARS, North Carolina: Ozone impacts research, England: Ozone impacts research, Switzerland: Ozone presentation measurements for vegetation: