Goals of Beauty and Body Modification Martin T Donohoe, MD, FACPSlide 2
Outline Historical and contemporary standards of magnificence and techniques for body change The heftiness pestilence Ethical and approach questionsSlide 3
Historical Ideals of Beauty Ancient Greeks esteemed symmetry Contemporary definitions comparative: "Perfect lady": little jaw, fragile jaws, full lips, little nose, high cheek bones, substantial and generally dispersed eyes, and waist:hip proportion of 0.7 "Perfect man": taller, waist:hip proportion of 0.9, prevailing/rectangular face/button, profound set eyes, overwhelming temples Suggests solid supply of testosteroneSlide 4
Historical Ideals of Beauty Chinese foot restricting torment, osteoporosis, falls/unevenness Surgery to reshape ladies\' feet for stiletto heels progressively well known Ancient Greek infant female infant wrapping Ancient Egyptians/Roman/Persians: antimony for conjunctival shimmerSlide 5
Historical Ideals of Beauty Elizabethan hair culling, ceruse cosmetics Court of Louis XVI: blue veins drawn on neck and shoulders to stress respectable blood sixteenth & seventeenth century: belladona eye dropsSlide 6
Historical Ideals of Beauty 18 th Century: vermillion cosmetics (sulfur and mercury) fourteenth - nineteenth century: corsetting (whalebone and steel) – antecedent to the support Making a rebound at both high-and low-end retailers (takes up to 30 minutes to bind up; requires an additional arrangement of hands)Slide 7
Contemporary Ideals of Beauty Breast inserts (following 1903 - Charles Miller, MD) First silicone bosom broadening 1962 "Better Baby Contests" – Eugenic Movement/Social Darwinism Tapeworms (Maria Callas) Rib expulsion (Cher?)Slide 8
Contemporary Ideals of Beauty Botox infusions Plastic surgery Abusive oppression of ladies through body adjustment – female genital mutilation Cultural partsSlide 9
Ideals of Beauty Brass neck rings (Paduang individuals of Burma) Lip and ear cartilage expanders (certain African tribes) Tattoos, body piercings, wingsSlide 10
Ideals of Beauty Wonderbra, Brava Bra ($2500, suction gadget worn overnight for 10 weeks, guarantees 1 cup increment, can bring about skin rash, inconvenience) Wonderbum pantyhose (DuPont Lycra) – guarantees a "consummately peachy, energetic base" Music industry delineations of excellenceSlide 11
Ideals of Beauty Ancient Greeks – symmetry Remains genuine Familiarity, identity characteristics likewise imperative Evolutionary adjustment for survival of human species Size, muscle power, without pathogen status, fruitfulnessSlide 12
The Perks of Beauty The gorgeous will probably get hitched, be procured, get paid more, and be advanced sooner Height is connected with wage and authority positions Strangers will probably help attractive individuals in troubleSlide 13
The Perks of Beauty The entirely/nice looking are less inclined to be accounted for, got, blamed, or rebuffed for a minor or real wrongdoing Role of ageism (more vital for ladies) The obligation: Attractiveness is perceived as an extraordinary blessing, and its abuse is not enduredSlide 14
Cosmetics Concocted at home preceding 20 th Century Industry brought forth by: "Appeal" of whores/sexuality Mass ubiquity of against maturing items in 1920s Women entering workforce Migrations to urban areas Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (1938)Slide 15
Cosmetics 2004 spending = $12 billion 33% more than the sum required every year (notwithstanding ebb and flow consumptions) to give water and sanitation to all individuals in creating countries Slightly more than the sum required every year (notwithstanding momentum uses) to give reporductive medicinal services to all ladies in creating nationsSlide 16
Cosmetics Average American grown-up utilizations 9 individual consideration items/day (with 126 one of a kind synthetic fixings) 89% of the more than 10,500 fixings utilized as a part of individual consideration items never tried for lethality Little FDA oversightSlide 17
Cosmetics Unusual fixings include: Cow colostrum Gold Foreskin Placenta Fetal cellsSlide 18
Cosmetics and Hair Coloring Women dedicate normal of 19 minutes for each day to treating and modifying their confronts 55% of American ladies somewhere around 13 and 70 shading their hair 1/8 American men somewhere around 16 and 60Slide 19
Tanning The skin\'s reaction to bright light damage No such thing as a "protected tan" 95% of Americans comprehend that sunburns are hazardous, yet 81% still think they look better with a tan.Slide 20
Artificial Tanning 47% of understudies utilize a tanning light every year (females more than guys) 39% have never utilized a tanning light More than 90% of clients know that untimely maturing and skin growth are conceivable intricacies of tanning light utilizeSlide 21
Tanning as a substance misuse like issue Tanning produces endorphins Most nations don\'t confine access of young people to tanning parlors SPF of no less than 15 ought to be worn when outside (and re-connected oftentimes)Slide 22
Artificial Tanning Many moisturizers and creams accessible Burgeoning industry "Regular" does not as a matter of course mean safeSlide 23
Tattooing Tattoo from Tahitian word "tatau" ("to check") Reached apogee among Maori Popularized in West by mariners coming back from PolynesiaSlide 24
Tattooing Esthetic decision Initiation custom Time-sparing path for handicapped to beat troubles of applying cosmetics Adjuvant to reconstructive surgery (especially face and bosom, to reproduce characteristic pigmentation)Slide 25
Tattooing 30 million Americans have tattoos Ancient practice: Maori tribesmen, Thracian ladies of 5 th Century Greece Tattooing still unlawful in South Carolina and OklahomaSlide 26
Tattooing More than 50 distinct colors and shades utilized None affirmed for skin infusion Some modern level printer\'s ink or car paintSlide 27
The Fringes Anal dying Initially porn stars and sex laborers Now accessible to overall population for $75/treatment Can bring about dermatitis Money: Jim Nelson unloaded his head on eBay for a corporate logo tattoo in 2003Slide 28
Risks of Tattooing connected with hazardous practices in teenagers Infection e.g., hepatitis B, C, and HIV Am Assn Blood Banks requires one-year hold up between getting tattoo and giving blood Removal issues Allergic responsesSlide 29
Risks of Tattooing Granulomas Keloid arrangement MRI confusions Swellings/smolders Image quality endures (especially with perpetual mascara)Slide 30
The Most Common Problem: Dissatisfaction 17% of those inked later think twice about it Chief reason = the individual\'s name in the tattoo Practitioners\' aptitude levels shift generally Fading with time Blurring when infusions too profoundSlide 31
The Most Common Problem: Dissatisfaction Human body changes with time Styles go back and forth With facial restorative surgery, appearance of tattoos and lasting cosmetics may get to be bendedSlide 32
Tattoo Removal Techniques Laser medicines Dermabrasion Salabrasion Scarification Surgical Removal CamouflagingSlide 33
Temporary Tattoos Fade following a few days Allergic responses FDA ready re dangers with remote made items Freedom-2 Ink: Biodegradable color cases – when destroyed by laser, colors consumed by body and tattoo vanishesSlide 34
Risks of Henna Tattoos Henna items unsafe Henna endorsed for use as a hair color, not for infusion into the skin Produces a ruddy cocoa tint, bringing up issues about what fixings are added to deliver the assortments of hues named as henna (e.g., "dark henna," "blue henna"Slide 35
Botox Botulinum poison: Cause of botulism potential biowarfare/bioterror specialist Medical Uses: blepharospasm, uncontrollable torticollis, headaches, back fits, interminable torment, axillary hyperhidrosis, wrinkles because of ordinary maturing Unlikely to chip away at sun-or smoking-affected wrinklesSlide 36
Botox Manufacturer = Allergan Myobloc (Solstice Neurosciences – not yet FDA-affirmed) 4.6 million medications in 2007 (costing $2.3 billion) Large direct-to-customer promotion battle Olympians Mark Spitz, Nadia Comanici included $80/measurement + doctor\'s charge ($541 avg.)Slide 37
Botox Most clients white, age 35-50 12% are men In-home Botox parties; Botox tricks Hollywood performing artistsSlide 38
Botox Retreatments required q 3-4 months Side impacts: muscle shortcoming, masklike facies, dribbling, slurred discourse, yearning, uncommon unfavorably susceptible responses; may spread through neurons back to spinal string or even CNS 87 hospitalizations, 16 passings reported 1997-2006 Rivals = collagen infusions (from bovines, conceivable hypersensitive reactions), Perlane ("normal" collagen elective from human tissue), fat infusions, cosmetic touch up/eyelid surgerySlide 39
Dermal Fillers Alternative to botox Cow collagen, fluid silicone, plastic microbeads, engineered bone and ground-up human corpse skin (relationship with revenue driven tissue banks)Slide 40
Dermal Fillers $700-$900 per treatment (keeps going a couple of months) Compare with $4000-$6000 for a facelift, which endures 10-15 yrs before requiring touch-ups Side impacts Include renal disappointmentSlide 41
Conclusions Ideals of excellence: some moderately consistent, others change Multiple strategies for body alteration: some perilous, even damagingSlide 42
Covered in Other Slide Shows Cosmetic surgery Female genital trimming Body weight and the stoutness pandemic Ethical and strategy issuesSlide 43
References Donohoe MT. Magnificence and body adjustment. Medscape Ob/Gyn and Women\'s Health 2006;11(1): posted 4/19/06. Accessible at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/529442 Donohoe MT. Corrective surgery past, present, and future: degree, morals and arrangement. Medscape Ob/Gyn and Women\'s Health 2006;11(2): posted 8/28/06. Accessible at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/542448Slide 44
Re Tanning See slide show by Anuru and Salmon on dangers and directions identified with indoor tanning at http://phsj.org/?page_id=10Slide 45
Contact Information Public Health and Social Justice Website http:/
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