BIOMASS FUELLED FUEL CELLS: No Hydrogen Required Brant A. Peppley Canada Research Chair in Fuel Cells and Director Queen\'s-RMC Fuel Cell Research CenterSlide 2
But First a Crash Course on Fuel Cells Brant A. Peppley Canada Research Chair in Fuel Cells Director Queen\'s-RMC Fuel Cell Research CenterSlide 3
A Sample of Types of Fuel Cells Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM, SPE (TM) , PEFC) Hydrogen - Air Direct Methanol - Air Solid Oxide (SOFC) Molten Carbonate (MCFC, Direct Fuel Cell, DFC) Phosphoric Acid (PAFC) Alkaline (AFC)Slide 4
Polymeric (Acid) Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Operation on Hydrogen and Air This is the PEM energy component that everybody considers when we discuss the energy component auto It is the great Ballard power device It is one of many sorts of energy unitsSlide 5
PEM Fuel Cells: Forklift Truck Battery Replacement Fuel cell controlled material dealing with gear for huge distribution center operations have as of now demonstrated a money saving advantage Convenient hydrogen refueling WalMart effectively field tried General Hydrogen forklifts Two units field tried at GM and Fedex. GM have appeared there is a genuine money saving advantage of utilizing Hydrogenics energy unit forklift trucks rather than battery influence forklift trucks.Slide 6
PEM Fuel Cells: Backup Power Systems 12 kW Hydrogenics Awarded Supply Agreement From American Power Conversion to Deliver Up to 500 Fuel Cell Power Modules for Backup Power Applications Batteries 1 tank of H 2 20 minutes For web based business frameworks in urban focuses this is the main reasonable power reinforcement alternativeSlide 7
Direct methanol energy components : Micro-gadgets Power Probably first mass market energy unit item.Slide 8
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Stationay Power Five kilowatt private SOFC framework Five megawatt consolidated energy unit/gas turbine control plant. Squander warm at 1000ºC Low cost artistic and non-respectable metal materials Nat. gas/methane fuelledSlide 9
Molten Carbonate/Direct Fuel Cell: Stationary Power Also appropriate for disseminated control advertise. High fuel-to-power efficiencies. Inside transforming = straightforwardly devour nat. gas/methane 650ºC(1200ºF) and barometrical weight = great quality waste warmth.Slide 10
300 kW 1.5 MW Molten CarbonateSlide 11
Phosphoric Acid: Small Stationary 200 kW palletized frameworks Nat. gas fuelledSlide 12
Alkaline Three 30 kW power modules utilized on the orbiter. Immaculate hydrogen required. Harmed by CO 2Slide 13
Ballard Power System Fuel Cell Stack Ser. No. 002 (1986) Why I got to be distinctly inspired by biomass for power devices!Slide 14
Motivations Skepticism of Hydrogen Economy A hydrogen economy, utilizing power devices for vitality change, cases to address GHG emanations yet as of now the most monetary techniques for making hydrogen is from common gas and creates huge GHG. There are still huge specialized hindrances to overcome for both power devices and hydrogen Nuclear vitality is being proposed as the response to a dangerous atmospheric devation yet nobody appears to have analyzed the effect of building an extensive number of vast power plants delivering so much waste warmth.Slide 15
Motivations Need to address GHG emanations We critically need to address nursery gas (GHG) outflows. At long last it has all the earmarks of being by and large acknowledged that a worldwide temperature alteration (or if nothing else environmental change) is genuine. Since for all intents and purposes every single living thing in the biosphere work by utilizing biomass as fuel, and create control utilizing power modules, this would give off an impression of being the most earth maintainable technique for delivering vitality.Slide 16
A starch economy? The most widely recognized vitality money on the planet, utilized by for all intents and purposes each living thing, is the starch. Carbon is always reused and is kept in adjust in the framework Switchgrass Fast revolution willow treesSlide 17
Sources of Biomass Waste floods of sugars landfill squander water treatment plants wood squander agrarian waste other Virgin biomass wood grasses not corn!!Slide 18
Landfill Gas Approximately 55 million metric huge amounts of carbon proportional are discharged into the air every year via landfills More than 340 landfill-gas-to-vitality locales in the US Typically utilize expansive responding motors for consolidated warmth and power frameworks Low methane fixation landfill gas frequently can\'t be utilized for ignition motors however can even now be utilized with power modulesSlide 19
Waste Water Treatment Plants Anaerobic Digestion produces top notch fuel (>50 vol% methane) Easily open and gathering costs prepaid Methane is 23 times more intense GHG than CO 2 WWTP gas power devices frameworks would just supply a little division of our vitality needs yet would stop a lot of GHG outflowsSlide 20
Average WWTP ADG Composition (from accessible information in Ontario) I.R. Wheeldon, C. Caners and K. Karan, Conference Proc BIOCAP, First National Conference, Ottawa, February 2005. www.biocap.ca/pictures/pdfs/conferencePosters/Wheeldon_I_P1.pdf.Slide 21
Wood Waste Relatively huge gasifiers as of now in operation Often situated in remote areas where appropriated power is required Comparision of McNeil Gasifier Gas Composition to Battelle Pilot Data [Paisley et al. , 2000] Burlington Electric Department, VermontSlide 22
Agricultural Waste Farm-based anaerobic digesters In 2002, 40 cultivate digester to vitality extends in the US forestalled 124,000 metric huge amounts of CO 2 emanation 9 swine, 29 dairy, 2 poultry ranches Commercial anaerobic digesters for homesteads are as of now accessibleSlide 23
Technical Feasibility of Biogas Fuelled Fuel Cells Numerous exhibitions have effectively demonstrated the specialized plausibility phosphoric corrosive energy component (PAFC) on landfill gas PAFC on waste water treatment gas (WWTG) liquid carbonate power device (MCFC) on WWTG strong oxide energy component (SOFC) on AD gas Most specialized issues have been beat wide cluster of contaminants to tidy up high level of fluctuation in fuel qualitySlide 24
PAFC Demonstrations UTC Fuel Cells PC-25 right now in operation Eight PC-25 frameworks in New York City (first in 1997) One PC-25 in Köln-Rodenkirchen, Germany - Portland, Oregon 200-kilowatt PC25 that proselytes anaerobic digester gas produced by the wastewater treatment office into usable warmth and power for the office.Slide 25
RWE Installation Rodenkirchen Stahl, Knut - Experiences from the PAFC Operation with Sewage Gas 3 rd BFC Net Workshop Jan. 2005. http://www.bfcnet.info Downloads.Slide 26
Performance Verification Report – PAFC Results of 30 day test program for a PC25C Operated by NY Power Authority May - June 2004 Greenhouse Gas Technology Center, EPA, Environmental Technology Verification Report, September 2004, www.sri-rtp.com/PC25_VR_final.pdf.Slide 27
MCFC System on Wastewater Treatment Gas May 4, 2005 News Release King County acquires national ecological honor for producing power from waste water treatment plant methane gas 1 MegawattSlide 28
SOFC Demonstrations Limited number of establishments 1 kW trial showing on maturation gas Implementation of SOFC framework into biogas plant CHABLOZ in Lully http://www.bfcnet.info/downloads/Jenne.pdfSlide 29
Technical Challenges Biomass to Biogas Conversion Anaerobic processing is appropriate for wastewater treatment, landfill and farming waste yet not for wood waste or virgin biomass. For rural squanders in icy atmospheres the vitality yield can be low because of the requirement for mixing and outside warming Gasification is a develop innovation yet the great air-blown gasifiers create low warming worth gasses. Roundabout gasifiers are better Pyrolysis is engaging a direct result of the creation of pyrolysis oil yet it is not financial and there are specialized issues. Perhaps a cross breed bio-oil and hydrogen framework would be all the more monetarily appealingSlide 30
Technical Challenges Biomass to Biogas Conversion Anaerobic DigesterSlide 31
Technical Challenges Biomass to Biogas Conversion Gasifier 50 MW Biomass gasifier control frameworkSlide 32
Technical Challenges Biomass to Biogas Conversion PyrolysisSlide 33
Technical Challenges Gas Clean Up Contaminant expulsion prerequisites are exceptionally subject to kind of energy unit utilized and the sort of biomass. H 2 S, natural acids, siloxanes, soluble base metals, incandescent light. PAFC tidy up framework has been effectively exhibited and an execution confirmation report distributed. PAFC more delicate to harms than SOFC and MCFC Greenhouse Gas Technology Center, EPA, Environmental Technology Verification Report, UTC Fuel Cells PC25C Power Plant – Gas Processing Unit Performance for Anaerobic Digester Gas, September 2004, www.sri-rtp.com/GPU-VR-final.pdfSlide 34
WWTP ADG Clean Up RequirementsSlide 35
Technical Challenges Gas Clean Up H 2 S tidy up achievable with actuated carbon. Can be made regenerable Frequency of carbon swap is satisfactory for low H 2 S fixations (<100 ppm) For higher focuses a regenerable framework with catching is required (necessities work!) Siloxanes are a more major issue! In high temperature energy components siloxanes frame polished storesSlide 36
Technical Challenges Gas Clean Up – Siloxane Removal Siloxane expulsion is one of the additionally difficult parts of utilizing landfill or WWTP AD biogas Agricultural waste ADG does not contain siloxanes dairy animals don\'t utilize beauty care products and conditioner!!Slide 37
Biogas Fuel Processing A fuel processor changes the piece of the biogas with the goal that it can be encouraged to an energy unit framework to a hydrogen-rich blend that can be sustained to a power device The procedure adds many-sided quality to the framework however for the most part is vital keeping in mind the end goal to get adequate power device execution and lifetime.Slide 38
Biogas Reforming – Technical Challenges Diluent and contaminant issues in landfill site methane catch, issues can emerge from intemperate Nitrogen weakening oxygen sullying can likewise bring about poor reformer performa
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