Biomechanical Vitality Change: Challenges in Force Hardware and Electromechanics.


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low power hardware - mW and beneath - with new innovations ... vitality transformation can have a substantial effect on the low power, convenient hardware ...
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Biomechanical Energy Conversion: Challenges in Power Electronics and Electromechanics Patrick L. Chapman Assoc. Executive Grainger CEME Sponsored by Office of Naval Research Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Human-Portable Energy Proliferation of Portable Electronics: cellular telephones versatile PCs "wearable" PCs individual advanced colleagues Others to come? low power gadgets - mW and underneath - with new innovations Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Batteries Primary wellspring of man-compact vitality Storage lead corrosive: 30 W-h/kg 40 kg human; assume 4 kg of batteries (10 %) 120 W for 1 hour PC, around 50-200 W wireless, up to 30 W NiMH, Li-Ion: 30-100 W-h/kg Rechargable Relatively "clean" vitality Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Other Significant Options Combustibles little fly fuel motors (JP8) Fuel Cells $$$ (at any rate until further notice) much more perplexing than promoted \'clean\', yet fuel still at last restricted Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Biomechanical Energy Conversion Relatively new, undiscovered alternative Goal: harvest vitality from generally squandered human movement "clean" vitality probably renewable (nourishment utilization) boundless vitality moderately constrained power less restricted for blasts calm Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Commercially Available, Human Powered Shavers Radios Flashlights Wristwatch vibration/flywheel instrument Night vision scopes Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Mobile US Marine Power About 8 W nonstop catalyst to 25 W blasts Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Conceptual Portable Energy System Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Potential Sources? as per Prospector IX: Human Powered Systems Technology, Space Power Institute, Auburn U., 1997 Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Identifying Potential Sources Present information extremely lacking For now, concentrate on generally vast force Work with biomechanics specialists Prof. Xudong Zhang and understudies, MIE, UIUC recognize and measure the best competitor movements for force evaluate the weakness component for hopeful movements do investigates human subjects Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Typical Biomechanical Link Model, figure drive, speed, and power for movements Estimate weariness under given burdens Confirm with information from our biomechanics lab Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Human Subject Database Perform counts in light of earlier information gathered in regards to size and quality (normal) Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Test and Measurement Biomechanics lab 5-camera computerized catch framework response power stage electromyography (raises contention for muscle exhaustion estimations) Two human subjects tests arranged Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Challenges in Electromechanics Evaluate materials Identify, assess topologies New generator outlines development, position on body Construction and testing Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Materials Better known Piezoelectric Electrostatic Magnetic Research level polymers other intriguing materials Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Piezoelectric Compression/pressure developments Compact, lightweight Form fitting conceivable Subject of most biomechanical vitality transformation work heel strike vitality recuperation Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Piezoelectric, Heel Strike Heel strike is the most evident high power development Groups at MIT have fabricated models concentrate on piezoelectric material itself little power recouped did control a transmitter did utilize power gadgets to enhance the vitality use Electromagnetic generators to a great extent released Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Effective Mass; Heel Strike Starner, "Human Powered Wearable Computing," IBM Systems Journal Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Shoe with Implants Starner, "Human Powered Wearable Computing," IBM Systems Journal Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Piezoelectric Energy Recovery Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for pressure, requires an excessive amount of power to get sensible vitality for twisting, little range Polyvinylidene fluoride(PVDF) considerably more adaptable and all the more effortlessly molded given 116 cm 2 PVDF, diverted 5 cm, 68 kg, each 5 sec  1.5 W condition approximated heel strike maybe up to 5 W, considering both feet and energetic pace Open to civil argument more information required Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Electrostatics Use pressure/strain between parallel plates Use encompassing or purposeful vibration to bring about relative movement between plates Electrostatics tractable just if little air holes (microns) because of field breakdown restricted to 40 J/m 3 for naturally visible application Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Results reported hitherto Microelectromechanical frameworks (MEMS) approach out of MIT use MEMS capacitors (micron airgaps) exceptionally delicate to vibrations power transformation circuit recoups flow because of changing capacitance mW or m W power levels, however enough for a few applications Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Magnetic machines Clearly the best for perceptible applications 1 T field  400 kJ/m 3 far reaching use, covering almost all electric hardware Standard rotating designs not direct to adjust to this application One of the heel-strike papers demonstrates an illustration, yet not deliberately built at all Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Topologies Magnetic ought to likely be the fundamental center Which worldview of machines is ideal? hesitance, prompting, changeless magnets, mixes match to movement mass expense and execution tradeoffs Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Range of Motion, Degrees of Freedom Rotary or direct? relies on upon development Why not both? Why not various degrees of opportunity? Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Induction machines Force originates from cooperation between streams on portable and stationary individuals Difficult to legitimize in stand-alone applications Inexpensive, surely knew Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Reluctance machines Force originates from change of inductance Even less complex than impelling Again, harder to use in stand-alone conditions Position synchronization required Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Permanent magnet machines Force happens because of communications of ebb and flow on stationary part with magnets on turning part Relatively high cost, however a dynamic examination region Most clear to use for stand-alone electric era Position synchronization might be required Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Design Methods New machine topologies requests new outline techniques take specs from biomechanical information Can\'t utilize \'treat cutter\' methodology Finite components? 3-D likely. Attractive equal circuits? Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Construction and Testing Not clear to fabricate custom methodologies Testing torque and pace with dynamometer is not likely couple of watts torque and pace not all that persistent irregular movements, vast varieties between human generators Develop benchmarks particular to biomechanics Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Electromechanics Synopsis Most work to date by individuals looking for an application for their own particular innovation piezoelectric and MEMS specifically Essentially no distributed work by electromechanics and biomechanics specialists Little utilization of the best electromechanics materials: steel and copper Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Challenges in Power Electronics Energy source is whimsical instability variable recurrence, signal level current source if electrostatic generator Low power at most, 10\'s of watts at low end, mW Low flag level, potentially Switch drops similar to voltage levels Control and power for control circuit Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Simple Designs Diode span rectifier + channel three-stage revolving generator match voltage created to converter Emphasize generator outline over electronic configuration includes tradeoff of silicon versus steel Heel-strike work to information to a great extent demonstrates straightforward diode-capacitor spans, direct controllers Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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More Sophisticated Designs Design the generator for most extreme force yield Rely on converter to give the right voltage and current likeness power component correctors, air conditioning/dc converters Requires more control, more power gadgets maybe part of a focal force handling framework Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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Other Caveats Can biomechanical vitality change enhance human experience? cause heel strike to have less negative effect lessen the weight of consistent carnival of reviving batteries Can the transformation be useful in motoring and also producing? help physically handicapped people execution sponsor for competitors, military Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics

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