Bioremediation-From the Lab to the Field.

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What is Bioremediation?Why Bioremediation works?Contaminants agreeable to BioremediationLimiting variables (why bioremediation doesn\'t work?)Engineering procedures for BioremediationIs bioremediation a
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Bioremediation-From the Lab to the Field Mitch Lasat, Ph.D. NCER/ORD 1

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Presentation Outline What is Bioremediation? Why Bioremediation works? Contaminants amiable to Bioremediation Limiting variables (why bioremediation doesn\'t work?) Engineering techniques for Bioremediation Is bioremediation a "hot" exploration subject for the EPA? Bioremediation research 2

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What is Bioremediation? the utilization of biota to debase/relieve natural defilement -bioremediation - by microorganisms (soil, groundwater-natural contaminants) -phytoremediation - by plants (for the most part soil and surface water) 3

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Why Bioremediation works? microorganisms acquire vitality for development by debasing natural contaminants in a protein interceded process-direct digestion system -high-impact biodegradation of BTEX within the sight of an oxygenase (Pseudomonas) a few chemicals are not certain and notwithstanding the development substrate change different mixes cometabolism - oxygenases are not extremely substrate-particular and can likewise corrupt TCE (however TCE can\'t be utilized as a development substrate) 4

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Contaminants agreeable to Bioremediation I Hydrocarbons: -BTEX (vigorous and anaerobic biodegradation) -PAH (less managable) -high-impact debasement through cometabolism - anaerobic biodegradation (naphtalene-denitrification) Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons -high-impact electron benefactor (DCM, CM, DCA) -anaerobic electron contributor (TCE, DCE) -anaerobic acceptor (PCE, TCE)- dehalorespiration -cometabolism (high-impact, anaerobic-reductive dechlorination) Chlorinated fragrant hydrocarbons -PCB (all in all bioremediation obstinate) -high-impact, less chlorinated -anaerobic (dehalorespiration) -PCP; high-impact, anaerobic (groundwater-reductive dechlorination) -Dioxins; exceedingly impervious to Bioremediation 5

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Contaminants amiable to Bioremediation II Pesticides -chlorinated; profoundly impervious to high-impact change -phosphorus based and carbamate; immediately hydrolyzed -triazine; biodegradable Explosives -biotransformation is incomplete (TNT) or moderate (RDX) Inorganics -bacterial lessening of Hg 2+ to Hg 0 -bacterial diminishment of Cr 6+ to Cr 3+ 6

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Factors that breaking point the potential for Bioremediation (why Bioremediation doesn\'t work) 1) Contaminant-related restrictions: Synthetic versus regular contaminants - bioremediation potential more noteworthy for normal mixes Physical attributes - thickness, Henry\'s consistent, dissolvability, octanol/water segment coefficient Molecular structure of the contaminant degree of chlorination, straight versus expanded structure, immersed versus unsaturated mixes 7

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Factors that point of confinement the potential for Bioremediation (why Bioremediation doesn\'t work) 2) Environmental conditions: Hydrogeology: penetrability/water powered conductivity, heterogeneity, break bed rocks, soil properties, pH Nutrients: C:N:P-100:10:1 Electron acceptor: oxygen (3 sections of oxygen to proselytes 1 some portion of hydrocarbon to CO 2 ), nitrate, sulfate, ferric iron 3) Microorganisms nearness: Assessment of microbial action, presented microorganisms 8

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Engineering Strategies for Bioremediation Intrinsic bioremediation/normal constriction Enhanced/designed bioremediation -expansion of supplements, oxygen Bioaugmentation -presentation of fitting creatures 9

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Phytoremediation Phytoextraction (expulsion/extraction of lethal metals-Pb) Phytodegradation (organics debasement in roots and shoots-TPH, PAHs, BTEX, pesticides, CAHs) Phytovolatilization (CAHs, Hg, Se) Evapotranspiration/Hydraulic control (tuft decrease) 10

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Is bioremediation a "hot" examination theme for the EPA? Cross-organization research consultative workgroup for Goal 3; Bioremediation-a need innovation for remediation of defiled dregs, groundwater and soil ORD GOAL 3 MYP-long haul objective arranged with yearly advance measured by fulfillment of APG/APM-of the around 70 remediation-related APMs, roughly half relate to bioremediation: - Report on biodegradation of PAHs in silt -Report on dissolvable improved remaining biotreatment of lingering DNAPL -Develop and assess microbial populaces for powerful TCE biodegradation -Develop and assess savvy strategies for supplement blending and conveyance for bioremediation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons -Synthesis report on 5 DNAPL remediation advances 11

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Bioremediation research I ORD\'s Goal 3research system is intended to give a superior comprehension of the customary danger administration choices (digging, topping, pump and treat), and to examine elective choices (bioremediation, MNA) Problem-driven examination program, supporting exploration needs of: -Office of Solid Waste - Superfund -Leaking Underground Storage Tank Corrective Action -Oil Spills Contacts: NPD-Randy Wentsel NRMRL-Trish Erickson NCER-Mitch Lasat 12

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Bioremediation research II NCER Bioremediation research: -1997-2001; a few RFAs on Bioremediation and Phytoremediation -2001; HSRC project was recompeted, research concentrate on debased residue, VOC-sullied groundwater, mine squanders, phytoremediation considers/execution information: -site general data -contaminants -site hydrology -media -cleanup objectives -innovation utilized -comes about/expenses -lessons learned 13

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