course format presentation atomic science biotechnology bioMEMS bioinformatics bio-demonstrating cells and e-cells interpretation and direction cell correspondence neural systems dna registering fractals and examples sexual intimacy … .. furthermore, antsSlide 3
biotech labSlide 6
what is biotechnology? utilizing exploratory strategies with living beings to deliver new items or new types of life forms any strategy that utilizations living life forms or substances from those creatures to make or change an item, to enhance plants or creatures, or to create small scale life forms for particular usesSlide 7
what is biotechnology? control of qualities is called hereditary building or recombinant DNA innovation hereditary designing includes taking one or more qualities from an area in one life form and either Transferring them to another living being Putting them once again into the first creature in various blendsSlide 8
what is biotechnology? cell and atomic science microbiology hereditary qualities life structures and physiology organic chemistry building software engineeringSlide 9
applications infection safe product plants and domesticated animals diagnostics for recognizing hereditary ailments and gained sicknesses treatments that utilization qualities to cure illnesses recombinant immunizations to forestall ailment biotechnology can likewise help natureSlide 10
PCs in biotechnology PC reproductions with virtual reality and different uses help in biotechnology. PC demonstrating might be done before it is tried with creatures.Slide 11
objectives of biotechnology To see more about the procedures of legacy and quality expression To give better comprehension & treatment of different maladies, especially hereditary scatters To create financial advantages, including enhanced plants and creatures for agribusiness and proficient generation of significant natural particles Example: Vitamin An invigorated designed riceSlide 12
biotechnology terms Genome or Genomics DNA Transcriptome RNA or segment of genome deciphered Proteome or Proteomics ProteinsSlide 13
sorts of biotechnology Recombinant, R protein, R DNA Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Antibody (monoclonal counter acting agent) Transgenic Gene treatment, Immunotherapy Risks and focal points of biotechSlide 14
biotechnology advancement Ancient biotechnology-early history as identified with nourishment and safe house; Includes training Classical biotechnology-based on antiquated biotechnology; Fermentation advanced sustenance creation, and solution Modern biotechnology-controls hereditary data in living being; Genetic buildingSlide 16
biotechnology any strategy that utilizations living life forms or substances to make or change an item, to enhance plants, creatures, or microorganisms for particular uses"Slide 17
developing cornSlide 18
old biotech History of Domestication and Agriculture Paleolithic people groups started to settle and create agrarian social orders around 10,000 years back Early ranchers in the Near East developed wheat, grain, and potentially rye 7,000 years prior, pastoralists wandered the Sahara district of Africa with sheep, goats, dairy cattle, furthermore chased and utilized pounding stones as a part of nourishment planning Early ranchers touched base in Egypt 6,000 years prior with cows, sheep, goats, and products, for example, grain, emmer, and chick-pea Archeologists have discovered old cultivating locales in the Americas, the Far East, and EuropeSlide 19
old biotech Not certain why people groups started to settle down and get to be inactive May be in light of populace increments and the expanding interest for nourishment Shifts in atmosphere The decreasing of the crowds of transient creatures Early Farmers could control their surroundings when past people groups couldn\'t People gathered the seeds of wild plants for development and tamed a few types of wild creatures living around them, performing specific reproducingSlide 20
stone sheep, 2900 BCSlide 21
old plant germplasm The old Egyptians spared seeds and tubers, along these lines spared hereditary stocks for future seasons Nikolai Vavilov, a plant geneticist, thought of first genuine arrangement for yield hereditary asset administration National Seed Storage Laboratory in Fort Collins, Colorado is an inside for germplasm stockpiling in the U.S. Horticultural development and the utilization of herbicides has placed germplasm in risk and prompted a worldwide push to rescue germplasm for quality banksSlide 22
matured sustenance, 1500 BC Yeast - organic product juice wine Brewing lager - CO2 Baking bread, liquor Egyptians utilized yeast as a part of 1500 B.C. 1915-1920 Baker\'s YeastSlide 23
matured sustenance, 1500 BCSlide 24
aging Fermentation : microbial procedure in which enzymatically controlled changes of natural mixes happen Fermentation has been polished for a considerable length of time and has brought about nourishments, for example, bread, wine, and lager 9000 B.C. - Drawing of bovine being drained Yogurt - 4000 B.C. Chinese Cheese curd from milk - 5000-9000 years prior Fermented mixture was found unintentionally when batter was not prepared instantlySlide 25
maturation Modern cheddar producing includes: immunizing milk with lactic corrosive microbes adding compounds, for example, rennet to coagulate casein warming isolating curd from whey depleting the whey salting squeezing the curd agingSlide 26
aged refreshments Beer making started as right on time as 6000-5000 B.C. Egypt ~5000 B.C made wine from grapes Barley malt – ceramic Yeast found in old lager urns Monasteries - significant brewers 1680 - Leeuwenhoek watched yeast under magnifying instrument Between 1866 and 1876 - Pasteur set up that yeast and different microorganisms were in charge of aging.Slide 27
traditional biotech Describes the advancement that aging has occurred from antiquated times to the present Top aging - grew in the first place, yeast ascend to best 1833 - Bottom aging - yeast stay on base 1886 – Brewing gear made by E.C. Hansen and still utilized today World War I – maturation of natural solvents for explosives (glycerol) World War II – bioreactor or fermenter: Antibiotics Cholesterol – Steroids Amino acidsSlide 28
traditional biotech substantial amounts of vinegar are created by Acetobacter on a substrate of wood chips aged natural product juice is presented at the highest point of the segment and the section is oxygenated from the baseSlide 29
established biotech progresses In the 1950\'s, cholesterol was changed over to cortisol and sex hormones by responses, for example, microbial hydroxylation (expansion of - OH bunch) By the mid-1950\'s, amino acids and other essential metabolites (required for cell development) were delivered, and additionally catalysts and vitamins By the 1960\'s, microorganisms were being utilized as wellsprings of protein and different atoms called optional metabolites (not required for cell development)Slide 30
traditional biotech propels Today numerous things are created: Pharmaceutical mixes, for example, anti-toxins Amino Acids Many chemicals, hormones, and colors Enzymes with a vast assortment of employments Biomass for business and creature utilization, (for example, single-cell protein)Slide 31
amino acids and their usesSlide 32
old biotech meets new Fermentation and hereditary designing have been utilized as a part of nourishment generation since the 1980s Genetically built living beings are refined in fermenters and are adjusted to deliver huge amounts of alluring compounds, which are removed and purged Enzymes are utilized as a part of the creation of milk, cheddar, lager, wine, treat, vitamins, and mineral supplements Genetic building has been utilized to expand the sum and virtue of catalysts, to enhanced a compound\'s capacity, and to give a more cost-proficient technique to create catalysts. Chymosin, utilized as a part of cheddar generation, was one of the initially deliveredSlide 33
establishments of cutting edge biotech 1590 - Zacharias Janssen - First two focal point magnifying lens (30x) 1665 - Robert Hooke - Cork "Cellulae" (Small Chambers) Anthony van Leeuwenhoek – (200x) 1676 - animalcules (in lake water) 1684 - protozoa/parasitesSlide 34
microscopy van Leeuwenhoek\'s magnifying lens (200x)Slide 35
van Leeuwenhoek\'s drawing of yeast distributed in 1684Slide 36
establishments of current biotechnology 1838, Matthias Schleiden, confirmed that all plant tissue was made out of cells and that every plant emerged from a solitary cell 1839, Theodor Schwann, went to a comparable determination as Schleiden, for creatures 1858, Rudolf Virchow, inferred that all phones emerge from cells and the phone is the essential unit of life Before cell hypothesis the primary conviction was vitalism : entire life form, not singular parts, forces life By the mid 1880s, magnifying instruments, tissue protection innovation, and stains permitted researchers to better comprehend cell structure and capacitySlide 37
changing guideline 1928 - Fred Griffith performed tests utilizing Streptococcus pneumonia Two strains: Smooth (S) - Virulent (gel coat) Rough (R) - Less Virulent Injected R and warmth executed S - mice kicked the bucket and contained S microbes Unsure of what changed R to S, which he called the "Changing rule"Slide 38
changing ruleSlide 39
1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase Used T2 bacteriophage, an infection that contaminates microorganisms Radiolabeled the bacteriophage with S35 (Protein) and P32 (DNA) Bacterial cells were tainted and put in a blender to evacuate phage particles Analysis indicated marked DNA inside the microorganisms and was the hereditary materialSlide 40
1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha ChaseSlide 41
1953 watson and cramp Determined the structure of DNA Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins gave X-beam diffraction information Erwin Chargaff decided the proportions of nitrogen bases in DNA replication model - 1953 DNA bases made up of purine and pyrimidine Nobel Prize - 1962Slide 42
first recombinant DNA tests 1971 researchers controlled DNA an
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