3 Static Awareness SeminarSlide 2
Types of ESD Failures to Electronic Devices Catastrophic Failure Device no longer works Represents 10% of ESD disappointments Intermittent/Walking Wounded Device is operational, however inconsistent and will bring about extra administration calls Represents 90% of ESD disappointmentsSlide 3
Static Damaged Mos Transistor OXIDE LAYER GATE DRAIN SOURCESlide 4
Cost of ESD harm increments by ten (10) overlap at each procedure level Field Service Level System Level Board Level $5000 Component Level $500 $50 $5Slide 5
Where do you require static assurance ? Approaching assessment and test Stores and capacity Transfer trucks Kitting Manual and robotized insertion Wave welding Equipment gathering and test Packaging and sending Repair stations Field benefitSlide 6
DEFINITION OF STATIC ELECTRICITY The zap of materials through physical contact and partition, and the different impacts that outcome from the positive and negative charges so shaped. + _Slide 7
MAJOR PROBLEMS CAUSED BY STATIC Dust and Lint Attraction Material Handling Problems Damage to Products Product Malfunction Fire and Explosion Hazards Shock to PersonnelSlide 8
Ranking of Semiconductor Failure Causes EOS/ESD is the #1 Cause of Semiconductor Failure EOS/ESD 59% Electrical testing 3% Oxide/passivation disappointment 3% Conductor disappointment 3% Die crack 4% Lead short/open 7% Wire bonds 15% Others 6% Source : Semiconductor Reliability News, March 1993Slide 9
Device Type MOSFET VMOS NMOS GaAsFET EPROM CMOS GaAsFET JFET SAW Op-AMP Schottky Diodes Film Resistors Bipolar Resistors ECL SCR SChottky TTL Threshold Susceptivity (Volts) 10 - 100 30 - 1800 60 - 100 60 - 2000 100+ 200 - 3000 25 - 50 140-7000 150-500 190-2500 300-2500 300-3000 300-7000 500+ 500-1000 500-2500 SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE SENSITIVITIESSlide 10
HUMAN PERCEPTIONS OF ESD At 3000 volts, you can ESD At 5000 volts, you can ESD At 10000 volts, you can ESDSlide 11
Typical Electrostatic Voltages ELECTROSTATIC VOLTAGES MEANS OF STATIC GENERATION 10 TO 20 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY 65 TO 90 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY WALKING ACROSS CARPET WALKING OVER VINYL FLOOR WORKER AT BENCH VINYL ENVELOPES FOR WORK INSTRUCTIONS COMMON POLY BAG PICKED UP FROM BENCH WORK CHAIR PADDED WITH POLYURETHANE FOAM 35,000 12,000 6,000 7,000 20,000 18,000 1,500 250 100 600 1,200 1,500 OWEN J. McATEER MILITARY ELECTRONICS/COUNTERMEASURESSlide 12
ELECTROSTATIC DISCHARGE (ESD) Billions of Dollars $$$ are squandered every year as a result of ESD harm. A huge number of dollars in PC Board buoy is the consequence of ESD harm.Slide 13
DAMAGE MODES Catastrophic Failure Device no longer works Are for the most part gotten in-house Represents 10% of ESD disappointments Intermittent/Walking Wounded Device is operational, yet flighty and will bring about extra administration calls Most costly static issue Represents 90% of ESD disappointmentsSlide 14
DAMAGES CAUSED BY ESDSlide 15
PROPERTIES OF STATIC ELECTRICITY A charged surface has electrical potential vitality (voltage) A charged surface exudes an electric field A charged surface can create active vitality (current)Slide 16
STATIC CHARGE GENERATORS Work surfaces Floors Chairs Clothing Papers and work arrange holders Packaging materials PERSONNELSlide 17
DEVICE FAILURE CAN HAPPEN AT ANY LEVEL Single gadget Circuit load up Product get together Field benefitSlide 18
STATIC GENERATION Triboelectric charging Induction Changes in capacitanceSlide 19
TRIBOELECTRIFICATION Static Charge can be created by contact and partition of divergent surfaces. Static Charge on reaching surfaces can be expanded with expansion of erosion or rubbing .Slide 20
INDUCTION Process of isolating charges on a material through space at a separation by the impact of an electric field . A conduit within the sight of an electric field can secure a charge and hold it. Non-conductors are captivated and ready to be pulled in to charged surfaces (like tidy to a TV screen).Slide 21
CHANGES IN CAPACITANCE Voltage on a question is significantly influenced by the capacitance of the protest. Capacitance can change in nature because of position of the protest with respect to different questions in the range. Increment capacitance, diminishes voltage. Diminish capacitance, expands voltage.Slide 22
MATERIALS CHARACTERISTICS Conductors Allow the stream of electrons Non-transmitters or Insulators Resist the stream of electronsSlide 23
FACTORS AFFECTING STATIC CHARGE GENERATION Intimacy of contact Speed of partition Conductivity of materials Position on Triboelectric arrangementSlide 24
Air Asbestos Glass Mica Human Hair Nylon Wool Fur Lead Silk Aluminum Paper Cotton Steel Wood Amber Hard Rubber Brass Silver Sulfur Polyester Polyurethane Polyethylene Polypropylene PVC Teflon MATERIALS Increasing Positive Increasing NegativeSlide 25
HOW STATIC IS GENERATED + _ Contact and Separation of MaterialsSlide 26
STATIC FIELD EMANATES FROM CHARGED OBJECT 5,000 Volts 2,000V 3,000V 4,000VSlide 27
Fundamentals of Static VOLTAGES connected with static charges can be made by : 1. Triboelectric charging 2. Induction 3. Changes in capacitance SCIENTIFIC BASIS : 1. Coulomb\'s Law like charges repulse inverse charges pull in 2. V = Q/C V = voltage in volts Q = charge in coulomb C = capacitance in faradsSlide 28
Typical Voltage Variations Monitored on a Person with No Wrist Strap Feet Raised Operator Sat Down 1550 v(max) Operator Stands Up Operator Sat Down Operator Walking Feet Lowered 1400 v(max) 1500 Voltage Pulse Height 850 v(max) 1000 3200 v/sec 5000 v/sec 3800 v/sec 500 0 TimeSlide 29
SOLUTIONS TO STATIC PROBLEMS Prevention of Charge Generation Neutralization of Charge Dissipation of Charge ShieldingSlide 30
PREVENTION Static can\'t be completely counteracted .......... Just Limited !!!!!Slide 31
PREVENTION The property of Antistaticity is identified with Prevention of static charge era - Providing surface lubricity and somewhat leading properties normally brings about low charging properties.Slide 32
DISSIPATION Removal of Charge from Conductors Rate of dissemination controlled by imperviousness to ground Slow rate of dispersal favored by mostSlide 33
DISSIPATION Device harm models have decided the requirement for dissipative worksurfaces . Human Body Model Charged Device Model Machine ModelSlide 34
Human Body Model oxide layer _ static release _Slide 35
Charged Device Model _ tweezers _ release _Slide 36
Dissipation is the most essential control property in electrostatics. Dissemination incorporates establishing of individuals, worksurfaces and deck . Electrical framework ground favored over a different framework or building ground.Slide 37
IONIZATION Creation of free charge in gasses (typically air). Coulombs Law directs that inverse charges draw in . Ionization counterbalances static charges , one for one on surfaces. Ionization must be adjusted , generally a charge can be added to a surface.Slide 38
Shielding is utilized to ensure electrostatic vulnerable things when they are being transported between Static Protected Areas . Protecting is a prerequisite for most classes of segments in Military and business determinations.Slide 39
4 RULES OF STATIC CONTROL Handle all static touchy things at a static shielded work station. Transport all static delicate things in static defensive compartments. Test and screen the static control handle. Ensure each gathering in the production network takes after then over 3 rules.Slide 40
RULE 1 - STATIC SAFEGUARDED WORK AREA Provides holding and establishing for all conductors utilized as a part of the zone, including individuals . Gives balance of charge on the fundamental non-conductors utilized as a part of the zone.Slide 41
RULE 1 - SOLUTIONS Worksurface Materials Flooring Materials Wrist Straps Shoe Grounding IonizationSlide 42
OHM\'S LAW VOLTS = AMPS OHMS EXAMPLE: 120 VOLTS = 120 MICROAMPS 1,000,000 OHMSSlide 43
RULE 2 - TRANSPORTATION Products must be shielded when they are moved from the static protected work station.Slide 44
RULE 2 - SOLUTIONS Flexible bundling - protecting packs Rigid compartments - tote boxes, plate, card transportersSlide 45
RULE 3 - TEST EQUIPMENT Tester for Wrist/Shoe Strap. "Megger" (high voltage meter) for worksurfaces and deck. "Charge Plate" for Ionization.Slide 46
RULE 4 Make beyond any doubt everybody that is in the supply and conveyance framework takes after the initial 3 Rules. Lead reviews on providers for conformance to Operating Procedures if vital.Slide 47
STANDARDIZATION IN STATIC CONTROL Standards setting association exist in the US, Europe, and Internationally. The most dynamic associations are : ESD Association , EIA, JEDEC. The US Military additionally has numerous models identified with Static Electricity.Slide 48
ESD ASSOCIATION TEST METHODS Individual Products Wrist straps, flooring, place settings and so on. Estimation Techniques Resistance, Shielding, Charge Generation Advisories Guidelines, Practices, Procedures, DefinitionsSlide 49
EIA - Electronic Industry Association Packaging of Electronic Products for Shipment - EIA 541 Specifications for materials utilized as a part of bundling materials ESD Standard 625Slide 50
PREREQUISITES FOR A SUCCESSFUL STATIC CONTROL PROGRAM A full responsibility with respect to top administration ESD control consistence on all providers A complete in-house ESD control program Advise your clients on legitimate taking care of Select an expert and educated static control sellerSlide 51
Benefits of an aggregate static control program Reduced IC a
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