Brief Notes on Neurophysics.


104 views
Uploaded on:
Category: Travel / Places
Description
UN enrollment, Tuvalu versus World Bank. Issues with the Security ... A General Assembly of 192 part states (China(1 billion) = Tuvalu (10,000) = 1 vote each) ...
Transcripts
Slide 1

Neuron: a particular cell for sign handling body (soma) with dendrites (accepting signs) and axon (sending signals) When "set off", an "activity potential" spreads along the axon. After touching base at neural connection, it causes the synaptic vesicles to spill neurotransmitter over the synaptic parted In human: 10 11 neurons, 10 14 neurotransmitters cf. 302 neurons, 7000 neurotransmitters in a little worm (C. elegans): see PDF Brief Notes on Neurophysics

Slide 7

Brain, Consciousness and all the more Highly associated systems display "rising multifaceted nature". A "stage move" is a sudden (in some parameter space) switch to a subjectively new frame Could it be that cognizance (and the sky is the limit from there) is "only" a stage move when intricacy surpasses some level If in this way, then "comprehension" could be slippery to be sure! In any case, might this be able to be proficient misleadingly? Comparable for "source of life" … Implications

Slide 8

Brief Notes on Nanotechnology Origin: Richard Feynman ("There\'s Plenty of Room at the Bottom" 1959 !) First PhD on sub-atomic nanotechnology: Eric Drexler, from MIT in 1991 Principle: like sub-atomic science, however beginning sans preparation Main trouble: beginning without any preparation: [ ] sticky fingers ] troublesome self-proliferation (perhaps that is blessed … cf "dim goo")

Slide 9

An Illustration of Attitudes: When an embellishment for nanotechnology happens, no one gripes (cf. "utility haze - > "Bedouin jinn", nanomedicine and so forth.) When a (conceivably) overstated stress is communicated, the response is quick and venomous (cf. "dim goo") Recall: "when a researcher says that something should be possible, she is generally right. "At the point when a researcher says something is impossible, he is normally off-base".

Slide 10

Present Status Rapidly creating field Some intriguing yet not by any means helpful exhibits Mostly advance in instrumentation (e.g. optical tweezers") Concrete accomplishment with carbon Buckeyballs and with nanotubes ("Artificial microtubules"")

Slide 11

Brief Notes on Computer Science There is (unbeknownst to most clients) a "machine dialect" underneath all processing: Bits, bytes, words Instruction set: illustration: OPCODE A1 A2 (so 113475 means include substance of memory area 34 and area 75, and put the outcome into area 75; or 550078 may mean: go to area 78 and execute the guideline which is there … )

Slide 12

Programming and Clicking "Abnormal state coding languages": FORTRAN, C, C++, C-sharp, Java, … Then: GUI (graphical UI) - > click snap (and no one knows "how it works") Then: Internet and WWW: significantly additionally clicking, and another intending to the old issue: Data - > Information - > Knowledge - > Wisdom

Slide 13

Prospects for the Future: Moore\'s "law": multiplying of "execution" like clockwork => in 20 years: component of 1,000, in 40 years, element of 1,000,000 Where is the quantum-mechanical farthest point? Be that as it may, then: Quantum Computing? (Richard Feynman, again !!!)

Slide 14

Date Chip Transistors MIPS clock/MHz [1965 none ( vacuum tubes ) 0.006 ] Nov 1971 4004 2300 0.06 0.1 Apr 1974 8080 6000 0.64 2 Jun 1978 8086 29000 0.75 10 Feb 1982 80286 134000 2.66 12 Oct 1985 386DX 275000 5 16 Apr 1989 80486 1,200,000 20 25 Mar 1993 Pentium 3,100,000 112 66 Nov 1995 Pentium Pro 5,500,000 428 200 2000 Pentium 4 4.10 7 1500 soon 10 9 24000

Slide 15

Quantum Computing on one slide: principle "trap": Quantum parallelism: (review the Schrodinger Cat: Ψ =  +  ) (0+1)(0+1)(0+1)… (0+1)= 00000… … 0 + 00000… … 1 + … .. + 00001… … 1 + 00011… … . + … . + 11111… … .1 e.g. a 300-Qbit quantum PC will perform 2 300 ~ 10 100 operations all the while

Slide 16

RSA-640 is considered! Decimal Digits: 193 31074182404900437213507500358885679300373460228427 27545720161948823206440518081504556346829671723286 78243791627283803341547107310850191954852900733772 4822783525742386454014691736602477652346609 The calculating examination group of F. Bahr, M. Boehm, J. Franke, T. Kleinjung proceeded with its efficiency with a fruitful factorization of the test number RSA-640 , wrote about November 2, 2005. The elements [verified by RSA Laboratories] are: 16347336458092538484431338838650908598417836700330 92312181110852389333100104508151212118167511579 and 1900871281664822113126851573935413975471896789968 515493666638539088027103802104498957191261465571 The exertion took around 30 2.2GHz-Opteron-CPU years as indicated by the submitters, more than five months of logbook time. (This is about a large portion of the exertion for RSA-200 , the 663-piece number that the group figured in 2004.) Further advance exponentially more troublesome. The trouble for Quantum Computers is non-exponential. in any case, there are different challenges: decoherence  (best achievement in this way: 15)

Slide 17

Brief Notes on Artificial Intelligence As with atomic combination, a leap forward is constantly behind the following corner A beast power approach: the chess machines The instance of educator Cope It appears to be likely (to VC, in any event) that genuine achievement will come, if at any point, from gigantic parallelism

Slide 18

Brief Notes on Robotics This was the principle theme of the Stanford Colloquium Practical applications are now various (manufacturing plants, planetary investigation; military, … ) This is the fantasy/bad dream of numerous (i.e. either: " we will get to be unified with robots" or: " the robots will assume control") (see Moravec/Kurzweil/transhumanists ) This is additionally, at this moment, not high on my rundown (i.e. I trust it will require an achievement in AI)

Slide 20

Conclusions The rate of advancement is stunning The present and potential advantages are huge The threats are equivalent There is a Chinese condemnation which says "May he live in intriguing times." Like it or not we live in fascinating times. They are seasons of peril and vulnerability; however they are likewise more open to the imaginative vitality of men than whatever other time ever. Robert F. Kennedy

Slide 21

Notes on the International Aspects Two 9/11 addresses (one drafted by VC) How guileless is that? UN: change/reconstruct/supplant of reject? UN enrollment, Tuvalu versus World Bank Troubles with the Security Council Example of Inter. Nuclear Energy Agency Example of the EU tradition against torment Example of the "supplant" choice: Federation of Democratic Nations ? Case of considering "out of the case": BMD Do we, at times, discover the Truth?

Slide 22

Overview of International Affairs Peace of Westphalia: ( 1648 ) finished the Thirty Years\' War ; the principal cutting edge conciliatory congress; new request in focal Europe in view of the idea of national sway . WWI: a sheer franticness. 1914 to 1918. 20 million dead. German &Austria-Hungary&Ottoman… realm versus France&Great Britain&Russia&USA Outcome: 1) Treaty of Versailles (its requirement - > Hitler !!!) 2) League of Nations: 1920 – 1946. By and large, a disappointment. WW II: 1937 – 1945. 60 million dead. Nazi Germany&Fascist Italy & Imperial Japan Vs. France&Great Britain&Soviet Union United Nations: 1945 – present A General Assembly of 192 part states (China(1 billion) = Tuvalu (10,000) = 1 vote every) Security Council with 5 veto-conveying powers (US, Russia, China, UK, France)

Slide 23

Fellow natives:      On September 11, United States, and also subjects of numerous different nations endured an appalling misfortune in a psychological militant assault by a gathering of religious aficionados. Just about in the meantime, a littler scale yet maybe significantly more ominous  was the psychological militant mailing of Bacillus anthracis loaded envelopes, unleashed probably  by a solitary, in fact fit however rationally disturbed individual. These occasions reminds us, on the off chance that it was essential, that we have entered another time. Because of advances in science and innovation, the ability of bringing on amazing mischief is, or will soon be, in the scope of little gatherings or even people. This has been called "Knowledge-Enabled Mass Destruction", and if unchecked, it will achieve even much bigger enduring, maybe even substantial scale, disastrous occasions. This can be caused  by fear based oppressors, as well as coincidentally or by an error. It will be extremely hard to keep this from happening. Individuals will dependably have grievances, and mechanical method for dread will be accessible. The United States has as of now the military energy to overcome any antagonistic or maverick state, however it is unrealistic to battle little gatherings or people with tanks and rockets. Much keen and supported exertion will need to go into this critical exertion. Most importantly, the principle of worldwide law must be reinforced, so we have instruments to battle this new sort of battle.

Slide 24

The undeniable contender for this is the United Nations, which after all was made after WW2 to empower countries to tackle their issues without wars. However, the United Nations needs major changes. The present structure incorporates 40 smaller than normal states with less that 1 million resident each, and additionally states hundred-

Recommended
View more...