Broadband in Rustic Regions: - Strategies and Endeavors for Accomplishing Full Dissemination of Broadband in Japan -.


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Broadband in Provincial Regions: - Arrangements and Endeavors for Accomplishing Full Dissemination of Broadband in Japan - . Hitoshi MITOMO Waseda College and Stockholm School of Financial matters Nobuyuki TAJIRI Service of Interior Issues and Correspondences and Waseda College.
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Broadband in Rural Areas: - Policies and Efforts for Achieving Full Diffusion of Broadband in Japan - Hitoshi MITOMO Waseda University and Stockholm School of Economics Nobuyuki TAJIRI Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications and Waseda University 2 nd Black Sea and Caspian Regulatory Conference, June 22-23, 2007

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Geographic/demographic state of Japan State of the nation 378,000km 2 (60 th ) 70% mountain territories + 25% plain fields + 6,800 islands 128million population(10 th ) More fixation in urban regions and termination/deindustrialization in other (country) zones. 90% of the populace live in 10% of the region. 30% of the populace live in the Tokyo Metropolitan zone second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Initial phase of broadband in Japan ( late 1990s) 1) Dialup association (Analog + ISDN) neighborhood call rate (= metered and high rate) + ISP  Demand for level rate and more extensive data transfer capacity Japan lingered behind numerous other created nations as far as Internet infiltration 2) DSL NTT’s nearby circles were not open to DSL contenders NTT pushed for IDSN, hesitant to DSL (A p athway in NTT’s activity: ISDN  FTTH) 3) Cable Modem : Not well known in Japan 4) FTTH : Not yet prepared for procurement to buyers second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Policies towards the most exceptional data society Open Access (2000) Policy Visions “ e-Japan Strategy ” (2001): Development of BB system “ e-Japan II ” (2003): Promotion of cutting edge applications “ u-Japan ” (2004): Establishment of “ubiquitous system society” second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Broadband Next Technology Analog+ISDN Optical Fiber DSL Transition of BB advancements in Japan Users first Stage For quick dissemination second Stage For full dispersion 2010 2007 Year 2000 + Cable and Wireless as supplementary advances second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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1 st Stage : For fast BB dissemination The quantity of BB clients in 2000 - Japan 0.5 million (September) - US 4.3 million (June) - Korea 3.0 million (October) Broadband dissemination was the most elevated need issue. (  e-Japan Strategy (2001) ) DSL was moment innovation for repid spread. Be that as it may, NTT, the predominant nearby circle supplier, appeared to be hesitant to DSL.  Policy errand: Promotion of rivalry in DSL second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Key empowering agents of DSL business sector development Regulations Unbundling regulations : NTT’s nearby circle and dull fiber (official connection) unbundled at low charges Co-area regulations : Install competitors’ offices in NTT’s workplaces Competitors Attractive ADSL administrations offered by Softbank ( Yahoo! BB ) Lower level rate (around \2,880/mon.) \5,000-6,000 Free hardware establishment accuse Packaged administration of different applications (Free IP Phone, and so on.) Marketing Efforts second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Unbundling of endorser line DSLAM Router Co-area in Telephone office ADSL access system utilizing existing supporter offices GC switch MDF splitter NTT Household An ADSL Modem DSLAM Router Telephone office Another ADSL Provider ISP Household B PSTN ADSL Modem The Internet second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Provision of optical fiber (FTTH) Upward good BB innovation DSL - The introductory driver for BB infiltration Optical Fiber - Overriding innovation to be utilized 100M – 1Gbps for isolates houses, VDSL( 50-100Mbps ) for condo PON (aloof optical system): Enabling max.32 family units to share an optical fiber Two noteworthy suppliers: NTT Lagged behind different suppliers in ADSL procurement: 38.5% in DSL market (Mar.2007) To resuscitate in the BB business sector Plan: Providing 30 million endorsers with optical fiber administrations by 2010 Electric force corps. Usage of fiber systems utilized initially for the support of their offices second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Broadband Subscribers in Japan: 1999-2006 ( Dec 2006 ) DSL 14.2 mil. Optical Fiber (FTTH) 7.9 mil. Link Modem 3.6 mil. Altered Wireless 0.012 mil. Source: Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Broadband Network Structure Individual User Local Loop (Fixed telephone lines) ADSL Connection ISP Networks & Internet NTT East/NTT West ADSL Connection NTT East/NTT West Softbank BB, eAccess, ACCA, and so on. CATV system iTS COM, and so on. Optical Fiber NTT East/West NTT East/NTT West Competitors Softbank BB, and so on. FTTH (Electric force organizations) second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Coverage of Broadband Services in Japan 95 % ( 48.59 million families) 83 % ( 42.21 million family units) Total families: 51.10 million (2006) second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Broadband progressively taken up Japan has a spot over the OECD normal. - Characterized by higher entrance of optical fiber system. 15.6 endorsers for every 100 occupants (as of the end of 2006) second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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BB Applications Audio-visual applications P2P document sharing, feature visiting (Skype) Free VOD administration “Gyao” by Usen Group has gathered 9 million clients in a year. Meeting in the middle of telecom and television Digital physical has begun and simple will be ended in 2011. Transmission of physical TV channels over BB Aiming at the poor\'s disposal gathering regions of DTV . Not invited by link administrators and copyrights holders. second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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2 nd Stage : For full dissemination of BB An issue rose : BB dispersion and use has packed in urban regions . Advanced gap in the middle of urban and provincial ranges has gotten to be not kidding. Development of BB framework has been left to private areas. In light of benefit motivating forces, a higher need has been given to the advancement of BB system in urban ranges. FTTH is given just in 31.7% of the considerable number of districts. The rate of territories with full scope; 6.2% Areas with restricted scope; 25.5% Areas without FTTH; 68.2% (Source; MIC, March 2006) second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Broadband scope in Kanto Region FTTH DSL Cable Internet/Wireless Tokyo http://www.soumu.go.jp/joho_tsusin/broadband/map/kanto.html second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Broadband scope in Hokkaido Region Sapporo FTTH DSL Cable Internet/Wireless http://www.soumu.go.jp/joho_tsusin/broadband/map/hokkaido.html second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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A proof of uneven procurement of BB - Lorenz Curves (Takachi & Mitomo, 2005) Municipalities with more family units Municipalities with less families second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Difficulties in Developing BB in Rural Areas Unprofitable business for privately owned businesses Depopulation and maturing in country ranges  Fewer supporters, lower interest and less applications Lower scale & thickness economies The evaluated unit improvement cost in provincial zones is seven times higher than in urban regions. (Takachi & Mitomo, 2005) Urban ranges: \84 thousand ($763)/family unit Rural territories: \583 thousand ($5,300)/family unit second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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BB as a crucial framework for rustic advancement Fallen in a negative winding Uneven improvement of BB may have quickened the crevice in the middle of urban and provincial. Inaccessibility of BB makes provincial regions less appealing. Lower engaging quality may bring about additional termination. BB has been seen as a main impetus for the improvement in country zones BB is inescapable for elevating migration to build populace in rustic ranges. Lessen the feeling of remoteness/confinement : Feeling of being associated BB as a gadget for expanding productivity in provincial regions e-government decreases organization cost and build its proficiency. Substitutes for and supplements of transportation An option system for DTV second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Need for BB Deployment of BB No requirement for BB No organization of BB Profitability for BB business No benefit for BB business Towards Synergetic Effects BB applications for tackling nearby issues No legitimacy or use of BB is seen second Black Sea and Caspian Conference ©2007 Hitoshi MITOMO & Nobuyuki TAJIRI

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Next-Generation Broadband Strategy 2010 1. Dispense with “areas without BB accessibility” (family premise) by 2010. Dispense with all “municipalities without BB” by 2008. 2. Accomplish more than 90 % broadband accessibility (family premise) to ultra fast BB (e.g. FTTH) 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Broadband Availability 100 % 98% (a pproximately) 94 % ( 4

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