Carnivora.


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e: mongoose. f: bear. Meat eater Morphology. Skull shape reflects nourishing procedure. ... Egyptian mongoose: Herpestes ichneumon. Feliformia: Viverridae. 20 ...
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Carnivora

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Carnivora Carnivory and Carnivora are not equivalent words. Most carnivora are specific for "meat" eating, yet positively not all. Numerous other non-carnivora devour meat. 2 suborders: Caniformia = puppy like: have alisphenoid channel Feliformia = feline like: for the most part need alisphenoid waterway

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Gray wolf: alisphenoid

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California ocean lion alisphenoid

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White tiger: no alisphenoid trench

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Hemigalus derbyanus : civet – note bullae

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Nandinia binotata : palm civet

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Carnivora It is anything but difficult to perceive how felines and canids fit this characterization, yet what about mustelids? The 2 suborders are characterized on the premise of the sound-related bullae and the carotid dissemination. Moreover, amphibian carnivores (Odobenidae, Otariida, and Phocidae) are pinnipeds (plume footed), while others are fissipeds (part footed). These were once suborders.

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Carnivore Morphology All carnivores have very much created canines. They have carnassial teeth shaped by upper p4 and lower m1. Carnassials are intended to shear through muscle and delicate tissue, and in a few, to cut through bone also.

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a: lion b: hyaena c: canine d: marten e: mongoose f: bear

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Carnivore Morphology Skull shape reflects encouraging technique. Think about the structure of the musculature of carnivores and herbivores, and the relative position of the mandibular condyle.

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Compare the relative positions of the mandibular condyles and significance of essential biting muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.

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Carnivore Morphology Mandibular fossa varies as well. It has a "c" shape in numerous, particularly mustelids, that allows no sidelong development. In procyonids and ursids, it will probably more \'open\', permitting more sidelong development. Why do you believe that is?

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Note the mandibular fossa in the mustelid and the bear. What capacity may tail this structure?

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Carnivore Morphology A critical symptomatic normal for carnivores is the structure of the sound-related bulla. Review, this is gotten from the rakish bone of reptiles. Review, reptilian jaw enunciation is quadrate-articular, while mammalian is dentary-squamosal.

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Carnivore Morphology Carnivores have 2 types of sound-related bullae framed by tympanic bone shaped by tympanic and endotympanic. In feliformes, the bullae are framed by the tympanic and endotympanic, and have a septum in the middle. In caniformes, the bullae are shaped by the tympanic, and there is no septum.

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Carnivore Morphology Most carnivores have a baculum. This is kind of fascinating. What different warm blooded creatures have a baculum? Rodents. Why? Carnivores likewise have prompted ovulation! Occurrence?

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a: red fox b: racoon c: slightest weasel d: mongoose e: genet f: lion

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Carnivore Morphology Most have butt-centric sace utilized for intraspecific correspondence (territoriality - home reach and so forth.) Sometimes, these are utilized for resistance (skunks). Truant in ursids, insignificant in canids and felids.

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Carnivore Morphology Claws are noticeable aside from in clawless otters ( Aonyx ), however even here they are vestigal. Felids and viverids regularly have retractile paws. No opposable digits. Centrale, scaphoid, and lunar are combined.

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Carnivore Morphology Clavicle is lessened or missing. Grants expanded step length. Two approaches to run quicker: 1) increment stride rate or 2) increment stride length. Note: numerous ungulates likewise do not have a clavicle. Some are digitigrade (felids and canids) while others are plantigrade (ursids, procyonids). Distinction in pace?

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Carnivore Morphology Size reach is significant: minimum weasel Mustela nivalis weighs 70g, while Ursus arctos weighs 800kg. What is the ramifications of this size reach? High protein diet has outcomes for the digestive tract (incl. lessened ceacum). Carnivory, omnivory, and herbivory.

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Carnivore Evolution First fossil meat eater dates to the late Cretaceous: Cimolestes . Cimolestes is familial to both cutting edge carnivores and the creodonts. Creodonts endured to the Miocene.

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Cimolestes (Cretaceous): genealogical to creodonts?

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Oxyaena (Creodont): carnassial is shaped by m 1-2 and m 2-3 .

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Sinopa , Eocene creodont w/M 2 - m 3 carnassials.

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Carnivore Evolution 2 heredities of early advanced carnivores Viverravidae Miacidae Both had P 4/M 1 carnassials. Both are from the early Eocene. Centrale, scaphoid, and lunar were not melded.

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Carnivore Evolution Canids, felids, ursids, viverrids, and mustelids show up by the Oligocene. Radiation of carnivores mirrors versatile radiation of vegetation and potential prey things. Soonest pinnipeds (enaliarctids) date to the late Oligocene.

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Felimormia: Felidae Worldwide dist\'n with the exception of Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Japan, Oceanic Islands, and Poles. 36 species. All have abbreviated platform. What are the results of this as far as olfaction? Chomp quality?

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A) felid B) canid

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Note diverse extents of substantial and little felid skulls. Is it accurate to say that this is an allometric impact?

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Feliformia: Felidae Felids murder by means of cervical separation, or suffocation. Note extraordinary decrease in superfluous dentition.

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Note diminishment in molar battery, accentuation on cutting.

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Feliformia: Felidae Size reaches from 2kg to 300kg. Hyoid contraption is cartilaginous - bringing about capacity to thunder (murmur in fifi). Paws retractile - aside from cheetah. Semi-arboreal. Papilla on tongue are calculated in reverse. Chasing & Social systems?

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Feliformia: Hyaenidae Old world, extensive carnivores to 80kg. 4 genera and 4 species. Are both viable predators and scroungers. Feldhammer declares searching may decrease rivalry between different carnivores and hyaenids. In Serengetti, most felines rummage from hyaenids.

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Feliformia: Hyaenidae Can disgorge undigestable things. Digitigrade w/nonretractile paws. Fore-appendage strength is irregular. Why? Protrusable butt-centric fragrance organs. Do not have a baculum. Spotted Females have pseudopenis. Why? Likewise, females > guys. Giggling vocalizations.???

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Compare skull and dentition of striped hyaena and aardwolf.

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Spotted Hyaena utr

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Feliformia: Hyaenidae crocuta - spotted hyaena is biggest. Hyaena - striped hyaena. Parahyaena brunnea - cocoa hyaena Proteles cristatus - Aardwolf

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Feliformia: Herpestidae Old world: 18 genera and 37 types of mongooses. As of late isolated from viverids.. Size differs from 0.3kg to 5kg. Bolstering generalists. Singular - social. Earthly - semiarboreal. Herpestes javanicus acquainted with Hawaii.

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Egyptian mongoose: Herpestes ichneumon .

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Feliformia: Viverridae 20 genera and 34 types of Civets and genets. Old world. Just mammalian flesh eater on Madagascar. Wide assortment of encouraging styles: Frugivorous - omnivorous - savage. Peri-butt-centric organ produces \'civet. Civet utilizes this for aroma stamping, we utilize it for fragrance.

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Note the comparability of the skulls: subsequently the past solidarity of the families.

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genetta : Small spotted genet.

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Caniformia: Canidae 13 genera and 33 types of "canines," in new and old universes. Dingo ( Canis lupus dingo ) was acquainted with Australia and New Guinea around 4000 years prior. Size fluctuates from 1kg in Fenec to 80kg dim wolf. Have a tendency to be open, 2d seekers.

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Caniformia: Canidae Long appendages, nonretractile hooks. Long platform = great olfaction. Most established fossil dates to oligocene of NA: Hesperocyon . Issues w/scientific classification of \'red wolf\'.

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Canis latrans

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Caniformia: Mustelidae 25 genera and 65 types of badgers, weasels, skunks, wolverine, and otters. Fundamentally northern half of the globe. Only flesh eating. High vitality diet comes w/northern appropriation and high sa/v proportion. Long bodies, short appendages. 30g Mustela nivalis to 55kg gulo .

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Caniformia: Mustelidae Anal aroma organs - think skunk. Monestrous, some have prompted ovulation, some have deferred implantation.

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Taxidae taxus

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meles

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Zorilla : African mustelid .

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Note skull profiles.

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Caniformia: Procyonidae 6 genera and 18 species limited to new world. 1kg ringtail feline Bassariscus astutus to 18kg racoons. Sexual dimorphism. Kinkajou Potos flavus has prehensile tail. Kinkajou skulls and teeth take after.

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Compare skull profiles amongst canids and procyonids.

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Procyon: absence of allisphenoid waterway

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Procyon lotor

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Procyon lotor

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Procyon lotor: carnassials?

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Nyctereutes procyanoides.

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Caniformia: Ursidae Historically: N. America, Andes of S. America, Eurasia, Atlas Mts. of N. Africa, in Arctic to tropical timberlands. 6 genera and 19 species (counting more noteworthy and lesser pandas). 5kg lesser panda to 800kg grizzly. Sexual dimorphism is 20% in monogamous structures, and 100% in polygamous structures.

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Dentition adapted to omnivory?

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Caniformia: Ursidae Only polar bears are strict carnivores. Bears don\'t rest. Wild bears once happened in

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