Carnivora Carnivory and Carnivora are not equivalent words. Most carnivora are specific for "meat" eating, yet positively not all. Numerous other non-carnivora devour meat. 2 suborders: Caniformia = puppy like: have alisphenoid channel Feliformia = feline like: for the most part need alisphenoid waterwaySlide 3
Gray wolf: alisphenoidSlide 4
California ocean lion alisphenoidSlide 5
White tiger: no alisphenoid trenchSlide 6
Hemigalus derbyanus : civet – note bullaeSlide 7
Nandinia binotata : palm civetSlide 11
Carnivora It is anything but difficult to perceive how felines and canids fit this characterization, yet what about mustelids? The 2 suborders are characterized on the premise of the sound-related bullae and the carotid dissemination. Moreover, amphibian carnivores (Odobenidae, Otariida, and Phocidae) are pinnipeds (plume footed), while others are fissipeds (part footed). These were once suborders.Slide 12
Carnivore Morphology All carnivores have very much created canines. They have carnassial teeth shaped by upper p4 and lower m1. Carnassials are intended to shear through muscle and delicate tissue, and in a few, to cut through bone also.Slide 13
a: lion b: hyaena c: canine d: marten e: mongoose f: bearSlide 14
Carnivore Morphology Skull shape reflects encouraging technique. Think about the structure of the musculature of carnivores and herbivores, and the relative position of the mandibular condyle.Slide 15
Compare the relative positions of the mandibular condyles and significance of essential biting muscles: Temporalis in carnivores and masseters in herbivores.Slide 17
Carnivore Morphology Mandibular fossa varies as well. It has a "c" shape in numerous, particularly mustelids, that allows no sidelong development. In procyonids and ursids, it will probably more \'open\', permitting more sidelong development. Why do you believe that is?Slide 18
Note the mandibular fossa in the mustelid and the bear. What capacity may tail this structure?Slide 19
Carnivore Morphology A critical symptomatic normal for carnivores is the structure of the sound-related bulla. Review, this is gotten from the rakish bone of reptiles. Review, reptilian jaw enunciation is quadrate-articular, while mammalian is dentary-squamosal.Slide 21
Carnivore Morphology Carnivores have 2 types of sound-related bullae framed by tympanic bone shaped by tympanic and endotympanic. In feliformes, the bullae are framed by the tympanic and endotympanic, and have a septum in the middle. In caniformes, the bullae are shaped by the tympanic, and there is no septum.Slide 22
Carnivore Morphology Most carnivores have a baculum. This is kind of fascinating. What different warm blooded creatures have a baculum? Rodents. Why? Carnivores likewise have prompted ovulation! Occurrence?Slide 23
a: red fox b: racoon c: slightest weasel d: mongoose e: genet f: lionSlide 24
Carnivore Morphology Most have butt-centric sace utilized for intraspecific correspondence (territoriality - home reach and so forth.) Sometimes, these are utilized for resistance (skunks). Truant in ursids, insignificant in canids and felids.Slide 25
Carnivore Morphology Claws are noticeable aside from in clawless otters ( Aonyx ), however even here they are vestigal. Felids and viverids regularly have retractile paws. No opposable digits. Centrale, scaphoid, and lunar are combined.Slide 28
Carnivore Morphology Clavicle is lessened or missing. Grants expanded step length. Two approaches to run quicker: 1) increment stride rate or 2) increment stride length. Note: numerous ungulates likewise do not have a clavicle. Some are digitigrade (felids and canids) while others are plantigrade (ursids, procyonids). Distinction in pace?Slide 29
Carnivore Morphology Size reach is significant: minimum weasel Mustela nivalis weighs 70g, while Ursus arctos weighs 800kg. What is the ramifications of this size reach? High protein diet has outcomes for the digestive tract (incl. lessened ceacum). Carnivory, omnivory, and herbivory.Slide 30
Carnivore Evolution First fossil meat eater dates to the late Cretaceous: Cimolestes . Cimolestes is familial to both cutting edge carnivores and the creodonts. Creodonts endured to the Miocene.Slide 31
Cimolestes (Cretaceous): genealogical to creodonts?Slide 32
Oxyaena (Creodont): carnassial is shaped by m 1-2 and m 2-3 .Slide 33
Sinopa , Eocene creodont w/M 2 - m 3 carnassials.Slide 34
Carnivore Evolution 2 heredities of early advanced carnivores Viverravidae Miacidae Both had P 4/M 1 carnassials. Both are from the early Eocene. Centrale, scaphoid, and lunar were not melded.Slide 35
Carnivore Evolution Canids, felids, ursids, viverrids, and mustelids show up by the Oligocene. Radiation of carnivores mirrors versatile radiation of vegetation and potential prey things. Soonest pinnipeds (enaliarctids) date to the late Oligocene.Slide 37
Felimormia: Felidae Worldwide dist\'n with the exception of Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, Japan, Oceanic Islands, and Poles. 36 species. All have abbreviated platform. What are the results of this as far as olfaction? Chomp quality?Slide 38
A) felid B) canidSlide 39
Note diverse extents of substantial and little felid skulls. Is it accurate to say that this is an allometric impact?Slide 40
Feliformia: Felidae Felids murder by means of cervical separation, or suffocation. Note extraordinary decrease in superfluous dentition.Slide 45
Note diminishment in molar battery, accentuation on cutting.Slide 46
Feliformia: Felidae Size reaches from 2kg to 300kg. Hyoid contraption is cartilaginous - bringing about capacity to thunder (murmur in fifi). Paws retractile - aside from cheetah. Semi-arboreal. Papilla on tongue are calculated in reverse. Chasing & Social systems?Slide 47
Feliformia: Hyaenidae Old world, extensive carnivores to 80kg. 4 genera and 4 species. Are both viable predators and scroungers. Feldhammer declares searching may decrease rivalry between different carnivores and hyaenids. In Serengetti, most felines rummage from hyaenids.Slide 48
Feliformia: Hyaenidae Can disgorge undigestable things. Digitigrade w/nonretractile paws. Fore-appendage strength is irregular. Why? Protrusable butt-centric fragrance organs. Do not have a baculum. Spotted Females have pseudopenis. Why? Likewise, females > guys. Giggling vocalizations.???Slide 49
Compare skull and dentition of striped hyaena and aardwolf.Slide 51
Spotted Hyaena utrSlide 52
Feliformia: Hyaenidae crocuta - spotted hyaena is biggest. Hyaena - striped hyaena. Parahyaena brunnea - cocoa hyaena Proteles cristatus - AardwolfSlide 53
Feliformia: Herpestidae Old world: 18 genera and 37 types of mongooses. As of late isolated from viverids.. Size differs from 0.3kg to 5kg. Bolstering generalists. Singular - social. Earthly - semiarboreal. Herpestes javanicus acquainted with Hawaii.Slide 55
Egyptian mongoose: Herpestes ichneumon .Slide 58
Feliformia: Viverridae 20 genera and 34 types of Civets and genets. Old world. Just mammalian flesh eater on Madagascar. Wide assortment of encouraging styles: Frugivorous - omnivorous - savage. Peri-butt-centric organ produces \'civet. Civet utilizes this for aroma stamping, we utilize it for fragrance.Slide 59
Note the comparability of the skulls: subsequently the past solidarity of the families.Slide 61
genetta : Small spotted genet.Slide 62
Caniformia: Canidae 13 genera and 33 types of "canines," in new and old universes. Dingo ( Canis lupus dingo ) was acquainted with Australia and New Guinea around 4000 years prior. Size fluctuates from 1kg in Fenec to 80kg dim wolf. Have a tendency to be open, 2d seekers.Slide 68
Caniformia: Canidae Long appendages, nonretractile hooks. Long platform = great olfaction. Most established fossil dates to oligocene of NA: Hesperocyon . Issues w/scientific classification of \'red wolf\'.Slide 69
Canis latransSlide 70
Caniformia: Mustelidae 25 genera and 65 types of badgers, weasels, skunks, wolverine, and otters. Fundamentally northern half of the globe. Only flesh eating. High vitality diet comes w/northern appropriation and high sa/v proportion. Long bodies, short appendages. 30g Mustela nivalis to 55kg gulo .Slide 71
Caniformia: Mustelidae Anal aroma organs - think skunk. Monestrous, some have prompted ovulation, some have deferred implantation.Slide 73
Taxidae taxusSlide 74
Zorilla : African mustelid .Slide 79
Note skull profiles.Slide 82
Caniformia: Procyonidae 6 genera and 18 species limited to new world. 1kg ringtail feline Bassariscus astutus to 18kg racoons. Sexual dimorphism. Kinkajou Potos flavus has prehensile tail. Kinkajou skulls and teeth take after.Slide 83
Compare skull profiles amongst canids and procyonids.Slide 86
Procyon: absence of allisphenoid waterwaySlide 87
Procyon lotorSlide 88
Procyon lotorSlide 89
Procyon lotor: carnassials?Slide 91
Nyctereutes procyanoides.Slide 93
Caniformia: Ursidae Historically: N. America, Andes of S. America, Eurasia, Atlas Mts. of N. Africa, in Arctic to tropical timberlands. 6 genera and 19 species (counting more noteworthy and lesser pandas). 5kg lesser panda to 800kg grizzly. Sexual dimorphism is 20% in monogamous structures, and 100% in polygamous structures.Slide 94
Dentition adapted to omnivory?Slide 98
Caniformia: Ursidae Only polar bears are strict carnivores. Bears don\'t rest. Wild bears once happened in
Grown-ups are for the most part singular with discrete home ranges. Nook in old rat tunnels, tre ...
The nearest living relatives of seals Carnivora, for example, bears and weasels ... The Polar Be ...
The wild feline started in Africa and Southwest Asia. Trained in ... In Iowa: a large portion of ...
Trees and Shrubs. http://www.ag.auburn.edu/scene/338.html. Vitis vinifera. Grape ... html. Sorbu ...
It is the place trees develop that can endure the water's saltiness there, and live in ... Incor ...
History of Scrapbooking. Why I adore/detest about Scrapbooking. Scrapbook Night. When I ... Open ...
Another affection and pastime of mine is scrapbooking. I appreciate having the capacity to archi ...
Buyer Packaged Goods Expertise since 1977. DAVID BIERNBAUM ... Since 1977, is a buyer bundled me ...
(PC Communication and Networks) Lecture 8. ???????????????????? ... bundles with a casing header ...
A worldwide festival of space science and its commitments to society and society, ...
GoToMeeting permits you to have a web getting with together to 15 individuals so you ... Have an ...
Altruistic TAX PLANNING TECHNIQUES IN BUSINESS SUCCESSION AND WEALTH ... Arranging apparatus to ...
The Ways of Development. Informative. Linguistic use. Punctuation has held & keeps on holding a ...
The eastern spotted skunk is the littler of the two skunks happening in Iowa. ... The eastern sp ...
North American River Otter Lontra Canadensis. Ben Robinson. Order: Carnivora Family: Mustel ...