Cassini Mission .


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Saturn. Saturn is the 6th planet from the Sun, circling at a normal separation of9.54 cosmic units (1429.4 million kilometers or 888 million miles).. Saturn physical facts:Diameter = 120,660 km (75,412 miles) - contrast with Earth (12,756 km)Mean Distance from Sun = 9.5 au = 888 million miles = 1429 million kmMass = 569x1024 kg(95 times more gigantic than Earth)Rotation Period = 10 hours and 4
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Slide 1

Cassini Mission An excursion to the Saturn System

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Saturn is the 6th planet from the Sun, circling at a normal separation of 9.54 cosmic units (1429.4 million kilometers or 888 million miles). Saturn physical actualities: Diameter = 120,660 km (75,412 miles) - contrast with Earth (12,756 km) Mean Distance from Sun = 9.5 au = 888 million miles = 1429 million km Mass = 569x10 24 kg (95 times more huge than Earth) Rotation Period = 10 hours and 40 minutes

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Saturn System Facts Saturn is the second biggest planet in the Solar System. There are 30 known satellites of Saturn. The biggest, Titan, has a thick nitrogen-rich air. Saturn has a broad magnetosphere. Did you know? Saturn discharges 79% more vitality than it gets from the Sun.

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Saturn\'s "Guide" The request of the rings and moons, beginning with the nearest to Saturn, is: Saturn Epimetheus Titan D-Ring Janus Hyperion C-Ring G-Ring Iapetus B-Ring Mimas Phoebe Cassini Division E-Ring New Satellites A-Ring Enceladus Encke Division Tethys Pan Telesto Atlas Calypso Prometheus Dione Pandora Helene F-Ring Rhea

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Saturn Compared to Earth-Moon System If you set Saturn and the fundamental rings (barring the diffuse E-Ring) between the Earth and the Moon, Saturn would scarcely fit! Earth-Moon separate 384,000 km (239,000 miles) Saturn and ring framework distance across = 170,000 km (106,250 miles) Ring framework here does exclude the E-ring.

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Saturn\'s Atmosphere Saturn\'s essential barometrical substance are: Hydrogen (94%) Helium (6%) what\'s more, there are hints of alkali, methane, ethane, phosphine, acetylene, methylacetylene, and propane. Did you know? What makes those beautiful brilliant groups in Saturn\'s upper air? - Ammonia ice gems

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Saturn\'s Wild Winds Saturn has the second speediest measured winds in the Solar System. Just Neptune has speedier winds. Twist speeds at comparative scopes north and south of the equator are almost the same. Central Speeds: hit toward the East at 500 meters/second (1,100 miles for each hour) How quick is that? A fly plane goes at a normal speed of 550 miles for every hour. The most grounded sea tempest (violent wind) winds beat out at around 220 miles for each hour. A wave goes along the vast water at 550 miles for each hour. The speed of sound is 660 miles for each hour at 30,000 feet.

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Who was Cassini? French Italian Astronomer: Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625-1712) changed his name to Jean Dominique Cassini when he moved to Paris. Cassini was an individual from the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris, France. Imperative disclosures: Cassini initially picked up popularity by deciding the turn times of Jupiter and Mars. Cassini was a careful spectator and his obedient procedure permitted him to find 4 of Saturn\'s moons - Iapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. Cassini additionally found the vast crevice in Saturn\'s rings which now bears his name (The Cassini Division).

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The Huygens Connection The climatic test that will go to Titan is named "Huygens." Dutch Astronomer Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) Christiaan Huygens found Titan and was the main individual to comprehend Saturn\'s rings. Huygens was an individual from the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris, France. He was likewise a pioneer in the fields of optics and mechanics. Christiaan Huygens developed the pendulum clock which was the principal precise timekeeping gadget.

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Cassini\'s Partners Cassini is overseen for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Furthermore, Cassini is upheld by scholastic and mechanical accomplices in 33 US states and 16 European Nations. The Huygens Probe is overseen by the European Space Agency.

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Cassini Spacecraft has 12 science instruments and 12 building subsystems while the Huygens Probe conveys and extra 6 science instruments. Shuttle Orientation: +X-pivot = remote detecting bed (note that essential remote detecting boresights see in the direction of the - Y-hub). +Y-pivot = Magnetometer Boom +Z-hub = fundamental motor gathering (note that the High Gain Antenna points in - Z-hub).

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Cassini Spacecraft Cassini is a vast rocket! Add up to shuttle mass at dispatch (counting charge) = 5586 kg (12,220 lbs) Propellant mass at dispatch = 3132 kg (6890 lbs) Spacecraft tallness = 6.87 meters (22.3 feet) High Gain Antenna Diameter = 4 meters (13.1 feet) Magnetometer Boom Extension = 11 meters (36 feet) Data Storage Capacity (on-board) = 4 Gbits Electrical power at dispatch = 875 watts Main Engine push ability = 445 Newtons (100 pounds of drive) Number of Science Instruments = 12

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Data Quality Comparison The cameras on-board Cassini have a much higher determination than those on the Voyager rocket. As a correlation take a gander at the distinction between the Voyager cameras and those flown on the Galileo rocket. Determination of Voyager Image = 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) per pixel Resolution of Galileo Image = 74 meters (243 feet) per pixel (more than 17 times superior to anything Voyager picture) Cassini\'s cameras will give far better determination than the Galileo cameras.

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Huygens Probe The Huygens Probe will play out a parachute-helped arriving on Titan. The test has a warmth shield, parachute bundle, designing gear including batteries, and six logical instruments to gather information at Titan. Mass = 350 kg (770 lbs) Power = 250 Watts Diameter of Probe\'s warmth shield = 2.7 meters (8.9 feet) Number of Science Instruments = 6 Probe Mission Day = 14 January 2005 Probe Mission Duration = 2.5 hours

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Why such a short mission? Nature on Titan\'s surface is extremely frosty (temperatures at first glance normal 95° Kelvin (- 178 C, - 288° F) and the batteries are not anticipated that would last longer than two or three hours in those conditions. Additionally, the test will utilize the Cassini Orbiter as a transfer station back to Earth. All the science information Huygens gathers will be transmitted straightforwardly to Cassini. Once the Cassini Orbiter plunges underneath Huygens\' frame of reference, the test and the orbiter will never again have the capacity to speak with each other. When the orbiter comes back to Titan, numerous months will have passed and the test\'s frameworks will be solidified.

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Huygens Descent Profile As the test enters Titan\'s climate and moderates, a little parachute is discharged which conveys the principle test parachute. Once the parachute is completely open the decelerator shield is discarded and the test floats toward Titan\'s surface. Around 40 kilometers (24.86 miles) over the surface the principle chute is casted off and a littler drogue chute conveys the test the rest of the separation. Drop time = 2.5 hours Impact Speed = 15 miles for each hour Surface accumulation time = 30 minutes

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Cassini\'s Launch Vehicle Cassini was lifted into space utilizing a Titan IVB dispatch vehicle. The Titan IVB contains two extensive, high-push strong rocket engines and two phases of hypergolic (blaze on contact) fluid force rockets. The extra Centaur upper stage utilizes cryogenic (super-chilly) fluid hydrogen and fluid oxygen fuels. Stature of gathered dispatch vehicle = 183 feet As an examination, when the space carry with its outside tank is remaining on the platform, it is practically as tall as the Titan IVB. The Apollo/Saturn V rocket arrangement was twice as tall. Lift Capacity = 5,770 kilograms (12,700 pounds). This is roughly an indistinguishable weight from a school transport.

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Sending Cassini to Saturn Liftoff happened at 4:43 am Eastern Time on 15 October 1997. Dispatch Location = Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Did you know? The aggregate dispatch mass (counting the Titan IVB, Cassini, and the dispatch fuel was 1 million kilograms (2.2 million pounds).

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Getting to Saturn Cassini is much to overwhelming to go straightforwardly from Earth to Saturn. To minimize the fuel required to achieve Saturn, Cassini utilizes the idea of gravity help. Gravity help is a procedure where Cassini utilizes the gravity of another planet to give it a push in speed. On its approach to Saturn, Cassini flew by Venus (2), Earth, and Jupiter. This is known as a Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA).

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Cassini\'s Flyby Dates Venus = 26 April 1998 - elevation 337 km (210 miles) Venus = 24 June 1999 - height 598 km (374 miles) Earth = 18 August 1999 - height 1166 km (725 miles) Jupiter = 30 December 2000 - elevation 9,721,846 km (6,076,154 miles)

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Earth\'s Moon Cassini flew past the Earth and Moon on 18 August 1999. The rocket\'s nearest way to deal with the Earth was 1166 kilometers (725 miles) which happened at 03:28 UTC.

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Io Close-Up Jupiter\'s moon Io skims over the planet\'s cloud best in this picture caught by the Cassini rocket\'s Imaging Science Subsystem on the beginning of the new thousand years, January 1, 2001, two days after Cassini\'s nearby way to deal with Jupiter. Did you know? There is space for two and one-half Jupiters amongst Io and Jupiter\'s cloud tops. Io is around the extent of Earth\'s Moon.

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Io and Jupiter This picture of Jupiter with Io in the frontal area was gone up against December 12, 2000. This picture was taken at a separation of 19.5 million kilometers (12.1 million miles) from Jupiter.

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Gas Ring Around Jupiter A donut formed ring of gas encompassing Jupiter is made unmistakable in this Image caught in extraordinary bright wavelengths by the Cassini rocket. The ring called the Io torus, draws its crude material from gasses retched by Volcanoes on Io.

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Io Torus Io is volcanically dynamic since tides are raised inside it by the gravity of Europa and monstrous Jupiter. These developments are enormous to the point that they persistently warmth and liquefy the inside. The gasses discharged in emissions are ionized by association with Jupiter\'s radiation belt, making

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