CENG 477 Introduction to Computer Graphics Fall 2009-2010Slide 2
Instructors & TA Section 01 - Tolga Can (tcan@ceng) B-109 Section 02 - Veysi Isler (isler@ceng) B-208 TAs Omer Nebil Yaveroglu (nebil@ceng) B-204 Nilgun Dag (nilgundag@ceng) A-301Slide 3
Class Web Page & Newsgroup http://www.ceng.metu.edu.tr/courses/ceng477/Lecture slides posted Syllabus Tutorials on OpenGL, GLUT establishment records Project related archives metu.ceng.course.477 You ought to take after the newsgroup every day for declarations and examinationsSlide 4
Prerequisites C/C++ programming: For the programming assignments Basic straight variable based math and investigative geometry: You will discover that Computer Graphics includes a great deal of science.Slide 5
The course book D. Hearn, M.P. Pastry specialist, "Computer Graphics with OpenGL", third Edition, Prentice Hall, 2004, ISBN 0-13-015390-7 Available at the book shopSlide 6
Grading Warm-up homework: 5% Quizzes: 10% Programming assignments: %30 Midterm: 25% Final: 25% Attendance: 5%Slide 7
Warm-up Prepare your CG improvement environment Install OpenGL and GLUT You may utilize standard C/C++ compilers like gcc/g++ to order and connection your projects. In the event that you utilize MS Visual C/C++, don\'t utilize MS Visual C/C++ particular orders as your projects will be aggregated and tried under Linux.Slide 8
Computer Graphics History, Hardware and Software, and ApplicationsSlide 9
What is Computer Graphics? Diverse things in distinctive connections: pictures, scenes that are created by a PC. instruments used to make such pictures, programming and equipment, info/yield gadgets. the entire field of study that includes these instruments and the photos they create. Utilization of PC to characterize, store, control, investigate and present pictorial yield.Slide 10
Another definition Computer illustrations: producing 2D pictures of a 3D world spoke to in a PC. Fundamental assignments: displaying : making and speaking to the geometry of articles in the 3D world rendering : producing 2D pictures of the items activity : portraying how protests change in timeSlide 11
Involves How pictures are spoken to in PC design, How pictures are readied for presentation, How cooperation inside of the photo is refined.Slide 12
Computer Graphics Applications Art, amusement, and distributed motion picture generation, activity, enhancements PC diversions World Wide Web Book, magazine plan, photograph altering Simulations (instruction, preparing) CAD engineering, circuit outline and so on. Experimental examination and perception Graphical User Interfaces CG versus Computer Vision (syntesis versus examination)Slide 13
Graphics Applications Entertainment: Movies Square: Final Fantasy Pixar: Monsterâs Inc.Slide 14
Entertainment Final Fantasy (Square, USA)Slide 15
Entertainment A Bugâs Life (Pixar)Slide 16
Graphics Applications Medical Visualization The Visible Human Project MIT: Image-Guided Surgery ProjectSlide 17
Everyday utilizationSlide 18
Everyday utilization Window framework and vast screen cooperation illustrations (Franã§ois Guimbretiã¨re)Slide 19
Graphics Applications Scientific VisualizationSlide 20
Scientific Visualization Airflow around a Harrier Jet (NASA Ames)Slide 21
Graphics Applications Computer Aided Design (CAD)Slide 22
Graphics Applications Training Designing Effective Step-By-Step Assembly Instructions (Maneesh Agrawala et. al)Slide 23
Graphics Applications Entertainment: Games GT Racer 3 Polyphony Digital: Gran Turismo 3, A SpecSlide 24
Training View from the shipâs span in the virtual environment at Dalian Maritime University . (Kindness Xie Cui . )Slide 25
Short History of Computer GraphicsSlide 26
Early 60\'s: Computer activitys for physical recreation; Edward Zajac showcases satellite exploration utilizing CG as a part of 1961 1963: Sutherland (MIT) Sketchpad (direct control, CAD) Calligraphics (vector) show gadgets Interactive systems First mouse (Douglas Englebart) 1968: Evans & Sutherland established 1969: First SIGGRAPHSlide 27
Late 60\'s to late 70\'s: Utah Dynasty 1970: Pierre Bezier creates Bezier bends 1971: Gouraud Shading 1972: Pong (first PC diversion) created 1973: Westworld, the first film to utilize PC movement 1974: Ed Catmull creates z-support (Utah) First Computer Animated Short, Hunger . Keyframe activity and transforming. 1975: Bui-Toung Phong makes Phong Shading (Utah) Martin Newel models a 3D teapot with Bezier patches (Utah)Slide 28
Mid 70\'s - 80\'s: Quest for authenticity. Radiosity shading; standard continuous applications. 1982: Tron, Wrath of Kahn. Molecule frameworks and clear CG. 1984: The Last Star Figher, CG replaces physical models. Early endeavors at authenticity utilizing CG. 1986: First CG liveliness selected for and Academy Award: Luxo Jr. (Pixar) 1989: Tin Toy (Pixar) wins Academy Award.Slide 29
1995: Toy Story (Pixar/Disney), the first full length completely PC produced 3D movement. The primary completely 3D CG toon Babylon 5. In the first place TV indicate routinely utilizing CG models.Slide 30
Late 90\'s: Interactive situations, logical and therapeutic representation, masterful rendering, picture based rendering, way following, photon maps, and so forthSlide 31
2000\'s: Real-time photorealistic rendering on shopper HW? Intuitively rendered motion pictures? Pervasive figuring, PC vision and illustrations.Slide 32
Display (Video Display Device) Most CG on feature screens Most prevalent: LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) Other mainstream showcase sorts: Old yet at the same time present: CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Plasma presentation Field Emission Displays Digital Micromirror Devices Light Emitting Diodes 3D show gadgets (multi dimensional image or page examine strategies)Slide 33
CRT related terms Refresh rate: # of complete pictures (edges) drawn on the screen in 1 second. Outlines/sec. Casing time: corresponding of the invigorate rate, time between each complete output. sec/outline Resolution: a 2D expression that measures the quantity of sweep lines and the quantity of pixels on every line (greatest number of focuses that can be shown without cover on a CRT)Slide 34
Raster Scan Screen is a general framework of tests called pixels (picture component) Screen is revived line by line Interlacing: Avoid gleaming influence for little invigorate rates. interweaved 50Hz: really 25Hz entwined, 2 cycles non-intertwined joined, cycle 1 interweaved, cycle 2Slide 36
LCD Displays Thinner and lighter. No tube or electron pillars. Blocking/unblocking light through captivated precious stones. Gems condense when energized by warmth or E field. A network of LC cells one for every pixel. No invigorate unless the screen changes. Shading 3 cells for each pixel.Slide 37
LCD Displays Thinner and lighter. No tube or electron bars. Blocking/unblocking light through enraptured gems. Gems condense when energized by warmth or E field. A framework of LC cells one for every pixel. No revive unless the screen changes. Shading 3 cells for every pixel.Slide 38
LCD Types Transmissive & intelligent LCDs: LCDs go about as light valves, not light emitters, and along these lines depend on an outer light source. Tablet screen: illuminated, transmissive showcase Palm Pilot/Game Boy: intelligent presentationSlide 39
Plasma Displays Plasma presentation boards Similar on a basic level to glaring light tubes Small gas-filled cases are energized by electric field, transmits UV light UV energizes Phosphor unwinds, emanates some other shadingSlide 40
Plasma Displays Plasma Display Panel Pros Large review point Good for vast arrangement shows Fairly brilliant Cons Expensive Large pixels (~1 mm versus ~0.2 mm) Phosphors slowly drain Less splendid than CRTs, utilizing more powerSlide 41
Display Technology: DMD/DLP Digital Micromirror Devices (projectors) or Digital Light Processing Microelectromechanical (MEM) gadgets, manufactured with VLSI systemsSlide 42
Display Technology: DMD/DLP DMDs are really advanced pixels Vary dark levels by tweaking heartbeat length Color: different chips, or shading wheel Great determination Very splendid Flicker issuesSlide 43
Display Technologies: Organic LED Arrays Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Arrays The future\'s presentation? Numerous think so. OLEDs capacity like customary semiconductor LEDs But they radiate light Thin-film affidavit of natural, light-transmitting atoms through vapor sublimation in a vacuum. Dope emissive layers with fluorescent particles to make shading. http://www.kodak.com/worldwide/en/proficient/items/specialProducts/OEL/creating.jhtmlSlide 44
Display Technologies: Organic LED Arrays OLED masters: Transparent Flexible Light-transmitting, and entirely brilliant (sunshine obvious) Large review edge Fast (< 1 microsecond off-on-off) Can be made extensive or little Available for mobile phones and auto stereos OLED cons: Not extremely hearty, show lifetime a key issue Currently just detached framework shows Passive lattice: Pixels are enlightened in scanline request, however the absence of phospherescence reasons glimmer Active grid: A polysilicate layer gives meager film transistors at every pixel, permitting direct pixel access and steady illum.Slide 45
System Bus Monitor Simple Raster Display System Frame cushion: put away pixel guide of screen Video controller just revives the edge cradle on the screen intermittently. Fringe Devices CPU System Memory Frame Buffer Video ControllerSlide 46
Inexpensive Scan change of yield primitives (lines, rectangles and so on.) done by the CPU. Moderate. As revive cycle expands, memory cycles utilized by the feature controller increments. Memory is less accessible to CPU. Arrangement: Graphics Display ProcessorSlide 47
System Bus Monitor Graphics Display Processor Scan change, yield primitives, raster operations (twofold buffering) Separete edge cradle CPU Peripheral Devices System Memory Display Proce
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