Ch 27: Conceptive Framework.


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insurance from invulnerable assault (because of sperm particular Ag) ... Full grown sperm has 3 segments: Head with acrosome (containing chemicals) and compacted ...
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Ch 27: Reproductive System Goals: Identify the structures of the male and female regenerative frameworks, including the gross and tiny life structures of the organs, structures and adornment organs and their fundamental capacities. Clarify meiosis, spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Examine the progressions that happen in the female regenerative framework amid pregnancy.

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General Terminology: Gonads, or Primary Sex Organs = ovaries and testes Produce gametes & hormones Transportation System Transport of gametes Secondary or Accessory Organs Glands External genitalia

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Male Reproductive Anatomy Primary conceptive organs produce gametes Secondary regenerative organs . . . Male conceptive and urinary tracts are in part shared

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Overview of Male

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Testes (matched gonads) 4 month Develop nearby kidneys Descend into scrotum through inguinal waterway (capacity of gubernaculum testis) Blood Supply by means of gonadal conduits Peritoneal covering is conveyed along  coating of scrotum Spermatic line : pack containing all the "ventilation work"

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Cryptorchidism In 3% of full-term and 30% of untimely conveyances Significance? - Treatment?

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External Features Function: bolsters, ensures, and manages temperature Scrotum comprises of Skin Dartos muscle Tunica vaginalis Median raphe Involuntary withdrawal (cremasteric reflex) in light of chilly or excitement

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Internal Structure of Testes Fibrous container – tunica albuginea – encompasses testes Lobules contain approx. 800 Seminiferous Tubules gather at rete testis Interstitial (Leydig) Cells make testosterone Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells help spermatogenesis

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Seminiferous Tubules

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Spermatogenesis Spermatogonia partition and one of the little girl cells develops into an essential spermatocyte . Meiosis Spermatids (haploid). starts, 2 optional spermatocytes. Another division Spermiogenesis : Spermatid development into spermatozoa inside sustentacular (Sertoli) cells Spermiation : Spermatozoon discharged into lumen

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Sustentacular (Sertoli) Cells Interstitial (Leydig) Cells Sertoli Cells: Maintenance of blood testis hindrance exceptional lumen liquid high in sex hormones, K + and aa insurance from resistant assault ( because of sperm particular Ag) Suspend spermatids and bolster spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis FSH and Testosterone work by means of Sertoli cells Secretion of inhibin to moderate sperm generation Secretion of androgen-restricting protein (ABP) Interstitial Cells Located between tubules produce testosterone

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Anatomy of a Spermatozoon Mature sperm has 3 bits: Head with acrosome (containing catalysts) and packed core Middle piece with bunches of mitochondria. Why? Tail - flagellum - (turning in corkscrew design) See fig 27-6

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Epididymis ~ 7 m long Head - predominant, gets spermatozoa Body - distal and substandard Tail - prompts ductus deferens Functions: 1) Monitors and modifies tubular liquid (coating has stereocilia!) 2) Recycles harmed spermatozoa 3) Stores sperm and encourages development (capacitation) Rete testis and Efferent ductules

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Spermatic Cord Can be palpated as it ignores the pubic overflow. Constituents : 1. Pampiniform plexus of spermatic vein 2. Spermatic supply route Ductus (vas) deferens 4. Lymphatics 5. Nerves-ilioinguinal and genitofemoral Fig 27.3

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Accessory Glands Provide for 95% of the original liquid 1) Seminal Vesicles Paired, on back mass of urinary bladder Tubular (~ 15 cm) Produce 60% of semen, hormones, fructose, and so forth. Initiate sperm (prompting motility)

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Prostate Gland 20 - 30% of original liquid Single, donut molded Secretion contains: Citrate Seminal plasmin (mellow anti-toxin) Prostate particular antigen (PSA) – blood test for ?

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Prostate Cancer Usually becomes gradually Often moderate pee is first sign Digital rectal Exam and/or PSA Treatment relies on upon size of tumor and different variables

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Bulbourethral organs (Cowper\'s organs) Pea size, matched, at base of penis Produce around 10% of semen Alkaline bodily fluid cradles the corrosive that might be available in pee

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2-5 ml discharge Ejaculation of semen by pelvic floor and penile muscles (Sympathetic division affects peristalsis in tract) Constituents: 1. sperm - 20 - 100 million sperm/ml 2. original liquid – 60% from fundamental vesicles 3. proteins - proteases and seminalplasmin Semen

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Penis Root - settled to ischial rami Glans – broadening of corpus spongiosum Prepuce = prepuce – incompletely covers glans and encompasses outside urethral meatus (expelled in circumcision ) Preputial organs - produce smegma (underpins bacterial development, for example, E. coli ) Fig 27.9

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Penis Shaft with erectile tissues Corpus Cavernosum Corpus Spongiosum Dorsal Artery and Vein Penile Urethra

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Pathway of Sperm Seminiferous tubules Convoluted, then Straight Rete testis Efferent Ductules Epididymis (head, body, tail) Vas (ductus) deferens Ampulla of vas deferens Ejaculatory pipe Prostatic urethra Membranous urethra Penile (springy) urethra Fig 27.8

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