Coal Conversion Pathway to Alternate Fuels .


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Coal Conversion – Pathway to Alternate Fuels. C. Lowell Miller Director, Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen, and Clean Coal Fuels Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy. 2007 EIA Energy Outlook Modeling and Data Conference Washington, DC March 28, 2007. Overview.
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Coal Conversion – Pathway to Alternate Fuels C. Lowell Miller Director, Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen, and Clean Coal Fuels Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Division of Energy 2007 EIA Energy Outlook Modeling and Data Conference Washington, DC March 28, 2007

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Overview DOE and Coal Liquefaction RD&D Coal – A Significant Source of Energy Coal Liquefaction Technology and Status Current and Growing Interest in Liquefaction Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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Components of Earlier DOE RD&D Coal Liquefaction Program Technology Screening – Bench and pilot plant ventures (1964–1976) Component I (1976–1982) Large-scale demos of Phase I forms Thermal and synergist hydrogenation forms Component II (1976–1999) Research program Pursue enhancements and options in view of better logical comprehension Component III (1980–1998) Bench-scale improvement of Phase II forms Overcome techno-financial impediments of Phase I forms Catalytic hydrogenation forms Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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Coal Conversion Processes Carbonization and Pyrolysis Low seriousness (gentle gasification) High temperature Direct Liquefaction One-arrange reactor innovation Two-organize reactor innovation Co-preparing Hybrid Indirect Liquefaction Gas reactors Slurry reactors Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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Coal Liquefaction Technologies Source: "Coal Conversion – A Rising Star," 23 rd Int\'l Pittsburgh Coal Conference, September 25-28, 2006. Mill operator EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Branch of Energy

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Why Coal-To-Liquids (CTL)? Vitality Security Size of coal assets Distribution of assets Environment Utilization of clean coal innovation Sequestration innovation expected Flexibility Advanced innovation Co-generation ability Economics Competitive with choices World oil value instability Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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Global Supplies Comparison of World Oil and Coal Reserves World oil request will develop by 40% to half by 2030 Coincidentally, unrefined supplies progressively moved in OPEC/politically unsteady geologies Coal offers chance to enhance overall fluid fuel supplies Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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Coal-to-Liquids – Part of an Unconventional Fuels Portfolio Growing agreement on need to enhance transportation fuel area Long term: hydrogen Intermediate term: fluids from coal, oil shale, fluids from biomass, expanded household petroleum creation, productivity Advantages of Coal and CTL Technology U.S. coal holds add up to 250-year supply at current rates of utilization Coal assets are scattered (demonstrated saves in 26 states) 1 ton of coal can be prepared into 2 barrels of astounding fluid fills Offers chance to pre-put resources into inevitable hydrogen-from-coal creation office Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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The U.S. Leads in Coal Reserves Source: Energy Information Administration, World Recoverable Coal Reserves Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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Delineation of U.S. Coal Reserves and Resources RESERVES – amounts of coal expected to be monetarily recoverable from known aggregations from a given date forward under characterized conditions . Assets – amounts of coal assessed, starting an offered date, to be conceivably recoverable from known gatherings, yet which are not at present considered financially recoverable. There is adequate save to take care of anticipated demand for power and up to 4MM bpd CTL industry for more than 100 years Source: EIA Coal Reserves Data 1997 Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Branch of Energy

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U.S. Coal Reserves Distribution Powder River Greater Green River Coal Region Northern Appalachian Central Appalachian Small Field or Isolated Occurrence Uinta Rank Piceance San Juan Raton Black Warrior Cherokee Arkoma Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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Coal Liquefaction HTU Direct Coal Liquefaction Process H 2 S, NH 3 , CO x Recycle H 2 C 1 – C 2 Gas Recovery Treatment Make-Up H 2 LPG Gasoline Refining Coal + Catalyst Diesel Fuel H-Donor Slurry Fractionation Slurry HVGO Solvent De-ashing DAO Ash Reject Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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Hybrid DCL/ICL Plant Concept Indirect Coal Liquefaction (F-T) Raw ICL Products Coal Gasification F-T Tail Gas Product Blending and Refining H 2 Final Products Hydrogen Recovery H 2 Direct Coal Liquefaction Coal Raw DCL Products Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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Shenhua DCL Process Light Gasses Recycle Solvent Catalyst Gasoline Coal Prep Coal Slurry Mixing Jet Fuel Liquefaction Fractionation Separation Upgrading Diesel Residue N 2 H 2 Purification Gasification Air Separation O 2 First Train: 1 MT/a Liquefaction Oil Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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Indirect Coal Liquefaction Overview Synthesis Gas Production Gasification Reforming Steam POX ATR Natural Gas Coal Pet Coke Biomass Wastes F-T Liquid Synthesis Slurry/Fixed/Fluid-Bed Tail Gas Power Generation Product Recovery Hydrogen Recovery H 2 Liquid Fuels Wax O 2 Oxygen Plant Air Wax Hydrocracking Product Storage Naphtha/Diesel Liquids Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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Coal-To-Liquids: Current Status Costs – numerous frameworks examinations continuous; for 50,000 bpd plant: Capital expenses evaluated at $3.5–4.5 billion Product cost at $40/bbl Technology considered business DOE/industry finished program for improvement of direct liquefaction innovation Sasol delivering 150,000 bpd of F-T items Shenhua China Coal Liquefaction Corp. developing 20,000 bpd plant; extra 180,000 bpd arranged Shenhua bolsters attainability studies for two 80,000 bpd coal-to-fluid plants Improved procedures, impetuses, and slurry reactors accessible Bench and pilot offices at Rentech, Headwaters, Syntroleum, and ConocoPhillips Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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Location of Proposed CTL Projects in the United States Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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Coal-to-Liquids Plants Under Consideration in the United States *Co-creating manure Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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CTL Projects Worldwide Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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International CTL Plants and Projects Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Branch of Energy

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Congressional Interest in CTL Previous Congress (109 th ) H.R. 4761 – Deep Ocean Energy Resources Act of 2006 H.R. 5965 – Progress Act H.R. 5653 – Investment in American Energy Independence Act of 2006 H.R. 5890 – American-Made Energy Trust Fund Bill S. 1920 – Renewable Diesel Standard Act of 2005 S. 2446 – American Fuels Act of 2006 S. 3325 – Coal-to-Liquid Fuel Promotion Act of 2006 Current Congress (110 th ) S. 154 S. 155 Coal-to-Liquid Fuel Promotion Act of 2007 H.R. 370 Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Branch of Energy

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Reports and Studies – CTL Processes Department of Defense OSD Assured Fuels Initiative Flight Test of F-T Jet Fuel Blend Air Force Energy Industry Forum Mitretek Techno-Economic Analysis of Wyoming Located CTL Plant Gasification of Kemmerer Coal at the Mine Mouth in Wyoming for Production of Zero Sulfur Liquid Transportation Fuels and Electric Power: A Feasibility Study Clean Transportation Fuels from Domestic Coal National Coal Council America\'s Energy Future Southern States Energy Board American Energy Security Study Scully Capital Services, Inc. The Business Case for Coal Gasification with Co-Production Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Branch of Energy

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Reports and Studies – CTL Processes (proceeded with) Conference Report 109-360 - National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2006 A Development Plan for a Coal-to-Liquid Fuel Program Energy Policy Act - 2005, Section 369 Commercialization of America\'s Strategic Unconventional Fuels: Oil Shale • Tar Sands • Coal Derived Liquids • Heavy Oil • CO 2 Enhanced Recovery and Storage Rand Corporation Unconventional Fuels: Strategic and Program Options World Coal Institute Coal: Liquid Fuels Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Division of Energy

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CTL Technology – Economics Remain Key Issue Conceptual plant outlines evaluate $3.5–4.5 billion required for introductory 50,000-bpd plants (Capital cost = $70–90K/day by day barrel) Plants might be productive with raw petroleum cost between $45–60/bbl with carbon stockpiling ( carbon stockpiling assessed to represent $4/barrel of the required offering value) Higher unit venture costs for pioneer show plants (10,000-to 20,000-bpd plants) Difficult to precisely gauge costs since no plants have been assembled worldwide since the 1980s Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Branch of Energy

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Potential Impacts on Cost Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Bureau of Energy

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Barriers to Coal-To-Liquids Technical Integrated operations of cutting edge CTL advances have never been shown Economic Uncertainties about future world oil creation High capital and operations costs Investment dangers Energy value instability Environmental CO 2 and criteria toxin emanations Expansion of coal generation and essential framework (railways, railcars, and so on.) Water utilize Commercial Deployment Competition for basic process hardware, building, and gifted work Who might lead the pack in business arrangement? Part control part fluid energizes Social NIMBY and open imperviousness to coal utilize Miller EIA 2007 03/28/07 U.S. Branch of Energy

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