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Connected Innovation School for This present reality BioDiesel: What Each Armada Needs To Know Displayed By: Rich Cregar, WTCC April 16, 2008 N.C. State Carnival Who's Talking: Rich Cregar, Teacher Wake Specialized Junior college RECREGAR@WakeTech.edu More than 37 years car experience
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Connected TECHNOLOGY College for the Real World BioDiesel: What Every Fleet Needs To Know Presented By: Rich Cregar, WTCC April 16, 2008 N.C. State Fairgrounds

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Who’s Talking: Rich Cregar, Instructor Wake Technical Community College RECREGAR@WakeTech.edu Over 37 years car experience CMAT, L1, F1 Graduate, SAE Diesel Technology Academy Independent Shop Owner, 17 years Member, Society of Automotive Engineers, NACAT, EENC Member, SAE Vehicle Fire Safety Committee Technical Consultant to Miles Automotive Group, EV Manufacturer

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U.S. Air Quality Courtesy EPRI

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Why Diesel? Realistic: Bosch

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Diesel Technology Is Driven By Regulation Photo: Rich Cregar, WTCC

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Saturated versus Unsaturated Fats From Wikipedia, the free reference book.

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Cetane, Cold Flow & Shelf Life

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Cetane When diesel fuel is infused into the exceptionally hot compacted air in the burning chamber, it must have the capacity to light suddenly. This nature of diesel is known as “auto-ignition” and at whatever time slack from the snippet of infusion until the fuel touches off is called “ignition lag”. A numeric scale has been concocted to gauge a powers quality regarding its capacity to promptly “auto ignite” and this scale is know as the Cetane file or Cetane number. Immaculate Cetane is the “perfect” diesel fuel in light of the fact that it auto-touches off promptly. Along these lines, it is doled out the Cetane # “100”. Then again, methyl naphthalene is a moderate smoldering fuel and is inadmissible for utilization in a cutting edge diesel. It has a Cetane # of 0. Refiners mix their distillate items to accomplish a Cetane number some place amidst this extent. A rating of 50 is viewed as extremely alluring. Most Diesel in the US has a Cetane # in the low 40’s. 40 is viewed as the base satisfactory quality. Unadulterated Canola based biodiesel has a Cetane # of 63!

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Biodiesel Blends What’s amiss with mixes above B5? Issues to tackle for higher mixes Fuel quality Fuel oxidation soundness Contamination, organism development High cloud point Materials association NOx build Fuel channel water partition effectiveness

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Biodiesel Blends Quality: Certification program for makers and advertisers (BQ9000). Accessibility of ASTM spec. fuel. Security: ASTM dependability working gathering. D6751 spec for B100 needs security spec. W likewise require a stand alone B20 spec., solidness added substances and great practices. B20 mixed with ULSD has 5 to 10 times more awful security than mixing with S-500 Contamination, microorganism development: Fuel conveyance and capacity control must enhance, create soundness added substances.

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Biodiesel Blends High Cloud Point: Develop icy stream improver added substances or mix higher % Petro Diesel Materials Interaction with Biodiesel should be completely caught on. Need to affirm long haul B20 impacts NOx: Need to comprehend affirmation suggestions for Nox increment. (2 % NOx expand w/B20) Water Separation Efficiency: Filtration materials, bigger size units or extra channels will be required

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Fuel Quality Recent study by the DOE on B20 mixes from arbitrary suppliers discovered that 36% of the specimens didn’t meet the 18-22% mix proportion!

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Materials Interaction Degradation/swelling of elastomers (characteristic and nitrile elastic), Nylon. BioDiesel assaults metal, bronze, copper, lead, tin and zinc Example: Bosch pump overpressure valve, evacuation of zinc covering after 1 yr stand-by genset operation with B20 (300 hrs): #2 Diesel B20 mix

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Nox Emissions Degradation/swelling of elastomers (characteristic and nitrile elastic), Nylon 66 Attacks metal, bronze, copper, lead, tin and zinc Bosch pump overpressure valve, evacuation of zinc covering after 1 yr stand-by genset operation with B20 (300 hrs): #2 Diesel B20 mix

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Biodiesel Quality 6) Water Specification: <500PPM Good quality petro diesel has a water content in the scope of 50ppm Biodiesel will hold up to 1500 ppm of water! Water harms fuel framework segments, is as of now an issue with OEM’s Re: their B5 restriction

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High Pressure Diesel Technology & Water

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High Pressure Diesel Technology & Water Photos kindness of the Robert Bosch Corporation

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Switching Over-Older Vehicles Biodiesel contains liquor, which is a characteristic dissolvable. Vehicles that have been in administration for any time allotment utilizing fossil diesel will have a development of enamels and other petroleum stores on the fuel\'s dividers tank and fuel lines. The alkyl-esters in biodiesel will tend to “clean” these stores from the fuel\'s surfaces framework and convey them to the vehicles fuel channels, where they will be caught and will rapidly stop up the channel! These same alcohols can likewise assault a percentage of the “soft” parts, for example, o-rings and adaptable fuel lines. At the point when B-20 or B-100 are utilized, Care must be taken to verify that these segments are made of materials, for example, Viton, that are perfect with biodiesel!

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Biodiesel Lubricity Diesel infusion frameworks have constantly utilized the diesel fuel to give grease to the some little, close resilience moving parts in fuel convey pumps, injector pumps and fuel injectors. The sulfur in fossil diesel produces numerous destructive discharges and is in charge of bringing on the motor oil to turn dark. Yet it is a magnificent grease and aides give the greasing up nature of diesel fuel. Fossil diesel (known as Low-sulfur Diesel) has around 500 sections for each million of sulfur. Indeed, even at that level, lubricity enhancers are routinely added to the fuel to secure motor fuel frameworks.

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Biodiesel Lubricity On Oct. 15 of 2006 Federal Law obliged this substance to be decreased to 15 sections for each million or less for on-expressway fuel. This is ULSD. (Ultra-low sulfur Diesel). The sulfur\'s expulsion from diesel fuel has a further effect on its greasing up quality. Architects need to add extra enhancers to the fuel, or utilize more lavish parts that can better endure the absence of oil from ULSD. The alkyl-esters in Biodiesel are a characteristic grease. Designers have perceived that the utilization of biodiesel, even in generally low rates, for example, B2 or B5 will upgrade the fuel\'s lubricity and in this manner supplant the sulfur as a grease with no of sulphur’s unsafe impacts.

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Lubricity HFRR - High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). In this test, a steel ball wears against a plate in rapid swaying and the wear\'s span scar is the measure of fuel lubricity.

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BioDiesel & Lube Oil Photo: Chevron oil Co.

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BioDiesel & Lube Oils Photo: Chevron oil Co.

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Greasecars Photo: Chevron oil Co. That\'s all anyone needs to know? Photograph: Chevron oil Co.

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Manufacturer Warranty Using mixes higher than B5 may void the manufacturer’s guarantee.

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Current Warranty Status: Graphic Credit-ASG Renaissance

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Biodiesel Economics American Jobs Act established 10/04 Deals with assessment credits for Biodiesel and Ethanol to counterbalance the Federal Excise Tax on engine powers The FET is presently $0.25/gal on every single engine fuel. Under this law, a credit of $1.00/gal will be given when Biodiesel or Ethanol powers are blended with petroleum items. This law will terminate on 12/31/08

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Biodiesel Economics Example: An oil organization is going to mix 1000 gallons of B5. The FET on this fuel will be $250.00 However, 50 gallons of this mix is Biodiesel so a $50.00 credit can be connected so the aggregate assessments paid will be just $200.00

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Biodiesel Economics Yellow oil and chestnut oil (non-agrarian oil) can just assume a praise of $0.50/gal B100 is absolved from the FET A maker offering B100 to an end client can guarantee a $1.00/gal credit through the salary charge framework. The Biodiesel must originate from an IRS enrolled and affirmed maker

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NC GREEEN ACT 2007 spending plan incorporates $1M for Dept of Commerce stipend program 30% devoted to extending refueling foundation, circulation and retail biofuels outlets S1272-Biodiesel Tax exception Motor energizes charge exclusion for biodiesel delivered by a person for utilization in a private traveler vehicle enlisted in that singular\'s name S1277-Biodiesel Warrenties : Diesel vehicles bought by state must be warrented for B20 use S1452-Diesel School Busses to Use B20-requires 2% diesel utilized by NC School transports be B20 by June 2008 2007 Biofuels Legislative Action

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Grants/Producer Payments $0.10/gallon (VA) $0.20/gallon (MS) Renewable Energy Grants (FL) Tax Credits 25% expense of developing/preparing office (NC) 35% expense of creation hardware (NC) $0.20-$0.30/gallon to maker (SC) 75% of all capital, operation, upkeep, R&D costs (FL) Tax Exemptions Some generation gear absolved from deals and utilization charges (SC) Incentives for Biofuel Producers

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Grants Given to private stations to apportion biofuels (TN) Tax Credits 15% for refueling framework (NC) 20% of refueling base development cost (LA) 25% of refueling base development and gear cost (SC) 75% of capital, support, R&D expense of capacity and dissemination of biodiesel (FL) Tax Exemptions All materials utilized as a part of biodiesel generation excluded from state deals, rental, use, utilization, conveyance, and capacity charge (FL) Incentive installment $0.05/gallon of B20 sold (SC) Incentives for Biodiesel Retailers

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Alternative Fuel Use Requirements Require state armadas/workers to execute the utilization of biofuels when attainable (VA, NC, SC, GA, MS, KY) Committees shaped on bio

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