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Linking. Why and how to teach it. Outline of Presentation. What is linking and why is it important? Assumptions about learning linking Research on linking Linking phenomena – A small study Some web-based materials for linking Teaching suggestions Research recommendations.
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Connecting Why and how to show it

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Outline of Presentation What is connecting and why is it vital? Suppositions about learning connecting Research on connecting Linking marvels – A little concentrate Some online materials for connecting Teaching proposals Research suggestions

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What is connecting? " the term connecting … is utilized as a part of two distinctive ways [in coursebooks]. Frequently it is synonymous with what we have called associated discourse marvels by and large since they all demonstration together to make units bigger than the single word. In this book, be that as it may, we utilize a meaning of connecting which is more particular: it applies just to what happens at word-limits where either two vowels or a consonant and a vowel meet " (Dalton & Seidlhofer, 1994, 123)

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What is connecting? Associated discourse wonders Deletion: desktop  destop Blending: wouldn\'t you be able to  can bite instruct  ejucate Other: going to  going to Linking Both sounds keep their quality an apple  a napple Look sharp  looksharp Two comparable sounds are professed once yet longer A who le l ot  a who ll ot An additional sound may seem to interface See Ann  See y Ann Who ate it?  Who w ateit

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What is connecting? "The words in expressions or thought gatherings are normally connected together. The consonant that completions single word associates with the sound toward the start of the following word" (S. Mill operator, 2000, p. 45) We say the words in the expression easily, associating the sound of the last word to the starting sound of the following word without halting after every word." (G. Orion, 1997, p. 53)

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Why is connecting critical? Connecting… helps your general familiarity. You will be less demanding to comprehend, and your audience members will respond all the more emphatically to your discourse on the off chance that you interface sounds" (Reed & Michaud, 2006, p. 44) A part of right articulation at the allophonic level (Trammell, 1993) A marker of local like discourse (Hieke, 1987) A vital component in impersonating right word-stretch, which is required for local like cadence and inflection patters at the expression level (Trammell, 1993). An essential element for listening understanding.

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Linking in books In most articulation books Some consider it important Pronunciation Plus (1999) Accurate English (1993) Sound Concepts (2006) Clear Speech (2003) Clear Speech from the Start (2001) Some don\'t Targeting Pronunciation (2001) Pronouncing American English (1997) Sounds and Rhythm (1991)

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What is instructed? Consonant to same consonant In ⌣ no chance I miss ⌣ Sarah Consonant to vowel In ⌣ each way I miss ⌣ Aaron Vowel to Vowel Coffee and drain  coffeeeeand drain (Gilbert 2001) Radio  Radi y o

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What is educated? Consonant to various consonant Cook severely  coo k seriously Stop sign  sto p sign Other/l/to vowel (haul out  haul ⌣ out)/r/to vowel (four eggs  four ⌣ eggs)

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Faulty Assumptions about connecting (in numerous books) What language specialists can portray about phonetics is pertinent to learners, e.g., Learners can without much of a stretch distinguish the last solid of a word Learners can recognize the classification of the last stable (e.g., is it a Stop consonant?) Learners can recognize the class of the primary sound of the following word Learners can recover the govern and apply it as they speak Native speakers of English can and do settle on these sorts of cognizant choices.

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Previous Research Hieke, E. (1984). Connecting as a marker of familiar discourse. A three-overlay grouping of retention: Linking, leveling and misfortune. Reasons Ease-of-exertion standards Avoidance of rest Pacing and conveyance Formality of enroll utilized (easygoing/ponder) Types of Linking Consonant fascination, in view of . Float fascination, now I. Discharge fascination, what she. Nasal discharge, uplifting news.

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Hieke (1984), Results C-An in easygoing discourse is available at the rate of 12 connections for every 100 syllables. Connecting can be considered generally speaking not an inclination in English. In Native discourse, 80% of the potential connection focuses transform into realized connections, while in NN English discourse that is the situation in just 54% of the cases. Connecting can be utilized as a parameter of familiarity to separate N from NN discourse.

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Anderson-Hsieh, J., Riney, T., & Koehler, K. (1994). Associated Speech Modifications in the English of Japanese ESL learners. Sorts of connecting: Consonant-to-consonant (indistinguishable, diverse, nasal) Consonant-to Vowel-to-vowel Results Intermediate gathering exhibited an inclination to protect word limits. This was kept up in C-C groups by a different arrival of the consonants, and through the addition of glottal stops in C-V and V-V bunches.

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Temperley, M. S. (1987). Connecting and erasure in conclusive consonant groups. How is the last consonant connected to the accompanying starting consonant? Maintaining a strategic distance from autonomous arrival of the word-last stop: Gemination, brief time Affricate explanation, begin things, sent sugar. Minimizing the arrival of the word-last quit: Devoicing: frame[d] those. Resyllabification: laze-dby, similarly we say laze-commotion.

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Trammell, T. (1993). English Ambisyllabic Consonants and Half-shut Syllables in Language Teaching. Word-last consonants crosswise over word limits: Within a phonological expression, a word-last consonant is alternatively ambisyllabic with the underlying vowel,/j/, or/w/of a taking after word in all stretch situations: than[k] you; wa[tch] out .

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Gimson, A.C. (1989). A prologue to the articulation of English . Contact in R.P. (standard British English) with word-last post-vocalic/r/A word-last consonant is once in a while persisted as introductory in a word starting with a highlighted vowel. Accordingly, keep running off, seldom/ru \'nof/.

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Allerton, D. (2000). Articulatory idleness versus \'systemzwang\': changes in contact wonders in late British English. In R.P. a general pattern towards less successive utilization of connecting [r, n, j, w]. rearranging the morphophonemic framework supporting morpheme recognizable proof, and in this way comprehensibility.

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Deterding, D. (2006). The elocution of English by speakers from China. The expansion of an additional vowel (more often than not a schwa), after a last plosive and before the following word is a connecting wonder in Chinese English, and(ə) this.

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Linking marvels – A little study Spoken content from a casual specialized address (Total potential connections: 200) Analyzed for potential and genuine connections. C-V: 47 genuine connections (out of 53 potential), 43 incorporated a capacity word or consummation. V-V: 10 potential connections all figured it out. C-C: Mostly unique consonants, seldom same ones.

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Some online materials for connecting American Accent Training: English Club Learn Linking (Presentation site)

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Teaching Suggestions Teach connecting utilizing morphological criteria as opposed to phonological, e.g., Linking to taking after capacity words (have ⌣ a , volume ⌣ of, made ⌣ up ⌣ of ) 2-word verbs Linking to relational words, articles, pronouns Linking from inflectional endings to the following word (involves ⌣ space, sorts ⌣ of) Attention to basic linguistic endings Why? Phonetic criteria are more precise yet are not exceptionally learnable Morphological criteria are less total but rather more identifiable by learners

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Research suggestions How successful is instructing connecting utilizing the morphological criteria as a part of correlation with phonetic criteria? How do perceptual and generation issues identified with connecting influence understandability?

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