CONTACT INFORMATION 2902 North Leonard Road 64506 Office Phone: 232-6706 Social Science Office: 271-4340 Continuing Education: 271-4100 Office Fax: 232-6480 E-Mail: IRAN26@been-there.comSlide 2
academic.mwsc.edu/albright Photo display on Tel Bethsaida Links to magnificent prehistoric studies sites Biographical information Syllabus and presents Archeology trip data Tel Bethsaida siteSlide 3
Max Mallowan and Agatha Christie … "Who are you, sir?" to him I said, "For what is it you look?" His answer streamed through my head Like bloodstains in a book… ..Slide 4
"His intonations mellow were brimming with mind"… … .. "Five thousand years prior Is truly, when I consider it, The choicest age I know. Furthermore, once you figure out how to despise A.D. What\'s more, you have the talent, Then you could come and burrow with me, And never meander back."Slide 5
Continued the creator: But I was thinking how to push Some arsenic into tea, And would all be able to without a moment\'s delay alter My psyche so far B.C. I took a gander at him and delicately moaned, His face was charming as well… .. "Come let me know how you live?" I cried, And what it is you do?"Slide 6
EARLY ATTEMPTS AT Archeology: Antiquarians Collectors Classifiers Looters and RobbersSlide 7
Pseudo-archaic exploration Chariots of the Gods (van Daniken) King Tut\'s tomb The PyramidsSlide 8
Archeology The investigative investigation of the material stays of man\'s past… .. Exploratory study (Techniques, Methods, Theoretical Frameworks) Material remains Man\'s pastSlide 9
THREE STEPS TO THIS DISCIPLINE: 1. Uncovering 2. Recording 3. Decipherment, clarification and elucidationSlide 10
Why Ancient Man Settled In The Same Location Water Land DefenseSlide 11
THE FORMS OF Archeological DATA Artifacts Features Structures EcofactsSlide 12
Classifier: Christian Thomsen Early 1800\'s Danish historical center custodian Stone Age Bronze Age Iron AgeSlide 13
STONE AGES Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): 700,000-15,000 B.C. Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age): 15,000-8300 B.C. Neolithic (New Stone Age): 8300-4200 B.C. Chalcolithic (Copper/Stone Age) 4200-3100 B.C.Slide 14
Prehistorical and Historical Writing created by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia 3,000 B.C. B.C. what\'s more, A.D. B.C.E. what\'s more, A.C.E. B.P. what\'s more, A.P.Slide 15
THE GREAT RIFT Louis and Mary Leakey; Richard Leakey Olduvai Gorge Lake Victoria: Tanzania, Uganda, KenyaSlide 16
James Breasted The Fertile Crescent Southwest end (Egypt): Nile River Valley Southeast end (Mesopotamia): Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey Jordan River Valley of IsraelSlide 17
TEL MEGIDDO 120-180 feet high; 16 sections of land 22 strata Early Bronze (before 3300 B.C.) to Persian (600-350 B.C.)Slide 18
THE TOMB OF KING TUT Howard Carter 1907-1922 Valley of the Kings Lord CarnarvonSlide 19
DATING THE PAST 1. Verifiable records (present day to 3,000 B.C.) 2. Dendrochronology (back to 8000 BC) 3. Radiocarbon dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years back) 4. Potassium argon dating (250,000 B.C. to roots of early life)Slide 20
Two Sources of Information Written: (Historical or Text-helped Archeology ) stone, earth tablets, wood, metal, papyrus, material Unwritten (Prehistoric Archeology) structures, models, pottery, devices, weaponry, adornments, coins, nourishment, bonesSlide 21
THE VALUE OF Archeology 1. It gives the shading to the high contrast portrayal of history 2. Verifiable records are in no way, shape or form complete 3. Helps in the interpretation and clarification of dialects 4. Approves some writing that was thought to be erroneousSlide 22
THE FERTILE CRESCENT James Breasted The Great Rift Olduvai GorgeSlide 23
Archeology "Archaios" and "logos" Zoology Psychology Anthropology SociologySlide 24
The Scientific Study of Humanity Cultural Anthropology Physical Anthropology Archeology LinguisticsSlide 25
HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN Homer\'s Iliad and Odyssey Troy and Mycenae, 1869 "The Greek Treasure" Sir Arthur Evans and the Minoans, 1899Slide 26
CERAMIC INDEX Sir Flinders Petrie, late 1800\'s Egyptian Predynastic tombs Diospolis Parva Based on artistic qualities Egyptian sequence the premise for most ordered plansSlide 27
Archeological DATA: STAGES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1. Securing 2. Fabricate 3. Utilize 4. StatementSlide 28
GOALS OF Archeology 1. Examining locales and their substance 2. Recreating past lifeways and history 3. Concentrating on social procedure 4. Understanding the archeological record which is a piece of our contemporary worldSlide 29
TEL AND HORVAT Tel: a man-made slope ruin Tel: Arabic Horvat: HebrewSlide 30
Debitage at Chaco Canyon Flint Flakes Evidence of exchanging Lookout pointSlide 31
DATING THE PAST Historical records (present day to 3000 B.C.) Dendrochronology (present day to 8000 B.C.) Radiocarbon Dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years prior) Potassium Argon Dating (250,000 years back to the sources of life)Slide 32
CIVILIZATION A level of social fulfillment set apart by: Presence of composing Monumental design Stratified social frameworkSlide 33
ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION Ecology Population development Technology Irrigation Growth of exchange Warfare ReligionSlide 34
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION 1 st ground stone innovation 1 st taming of plants and creatures 1 st rural ventures 1 st populace blast 1 st engineering 1 st weaving from taming 1 st ceramicsSlide 35
JERICHO Tel: 6 sections of land in region and 70 ft. high Oldest constantly occupied city Ideal environment Evidence of trained grains Trade system Defensive fortressesSlide 36
MESOPOTAMIA Tigris and Euphrates waterways Greek signifying "land between the streams" 600 miles in length; 250 miles wide Long, strongly hot summers Harsh, cool winters Rainfall: negligible and fluctuatedSlide 37
MESOPOTAMIAN CONTRIBUTIONS Wheel Chariot Writing Metallurgy Mathematical elements of mulitiplication and division Lunar CalenderSlide 38
MESOPOTAMIAN PERIODS Ubaid 5800-3000 B.C. Sumerian 3000-2300 B.C. Old Babylonian/Akkadian 2334-1600 BC Kassite/Hittite 1600-1300 B.C. Assyrian 1300-612 B.C. Babylonian/Medes 612-330 B.C.Slide 39
URUK: The World\'s first City Two advancements: composing and metallurgy 4500 B.C. 617 sections of land with towns stretching out as broad as 6 miles Dominated by a ziggurat (sanctuary hill)Slide 40
Sumer: The World of the First Cities 3500-3200 B.C.: lst enlightened region on the globe 3200-2000 B.C.: Sumerian Era lst 900 years had no brought together government City states: Uruk, Ur, Lagash 2320 B.C. all Sumer vanquished by a relentless warrior from Akkad (Sargon the Great)Slide 41
SARGON Ruler of Akkadian Civilization Conquered Sumerian Civilization Covered Sumer (south) and Akkad (north) Ur of the Chaldees: exhumed by Sir Leonard Wooley (Royal graveyard; arrangement of lords/rulers and entourage; one had 59 workers covered)Slide 42
Sumerian Civilization 3100-2334 B.C. No metal, timber, semiprecious stones Imported copper, gold and different minerals Widespread utilization of bronze Metal furrows; expanded farming yields all inclusive exchange system first utilization of dirt tablets for broad record keeping; Gilgamesh EpicSlide 43
CUNEIFORM Mesopotamia "Wedge-molded" Ideogram Stone engravings and mud tablets Mari: 20,000 tabletsSlide 44
Cuneiform Deciphered Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895) Worked two years duplicating engraving; utilizing stepping stools, ropes and slings Behistun Stone Persian King Darius doing combating Gaumata with the assistance of god Ahuramazda Old Persian (414), Elamite (263), Akkadian (112)Slide 45
Hammurabi Ur offered approach to Babylon and its Semitic rulers Old Babylonian Empire 2334-1650 B.C. "Code of Hammurabi": 1792-1750 B.C. 282 lawsSlide 46
HITTITE INTERLUDE From Anatolia (eastern Turkey) 1600 B.C. Capital: Hattusas Control of 3 mainlands and oceans Created light-chariot fighting; stallions Excavated in 1907 Archive of 20,000 tablets in Indo-European dialectSlide 47
Uluburun Ship Coast of southern Turkey; 1310 B.C. 350 copper ingots every measuring 60 lbs. Ton of sap in two-handles containers from Syria Ingots of blue glass; hardwood; golden; turtle shells; elephant tusks; hippo teeth; ostrich eggs; jugs of olives; substantial jugs loaded with Cannaanite and Mycenean earthenwareSlide 48
Assyrian and Babylonian 900-539 B.C. Assyrian capital: Nineveh King Assurnasirpal\'s gathering Tiglath Pileser III obliterated Bethsaida in 732 B.C. Last awesome Assyrian ruler Assurbanipal kicked the bucket in 630 B.C. Babylonians assume control in 612 B.C.Slide 49
Sennacherib Assyrian 705-681 B.C. Capital: Nineveh Invasion of Israel in 702-701 B.C. Ten Lost TribesSlide 50
Nebuchadnezzar 604-562 B.C. City of Babylon Walls of coated block Hanging gardens: one of the antiquated seven marvels of the world Invaded Israel in 587-586 B.C. State assumed control by Cyrus the Persian in 534 B.C.Slide 51
Archeological RESEARCH Several abilities utilized much sooner than unearthing starts as a part of the field: Theoretical aptitudes Methodological abilities Technical abilities Administrative/administrative aptitudes Writing and diagnostic abilitiesSlide 52
FORMULATION Problem/speculation definition Background research Feasibility concentrates onSlide 53
IMPLEMENTATION Permits Funding LogisticsSlide 54
DATA ACQUISITION Reconnaissance Survey ExcavationSlide 55
DATA PROCESSING Cleaning and preservation Cataloging Initial characterizationsSlide 56
ANALYSIS Analytical groupings Temporal systems Spatial structuresSlide 57
INTERPRETATION Application of hypotheses Cultural recorded and/or Cultural processual hypothesisSlide 58
PUBLICATION AND RESTORATION Final reports Research comes about utilized as an establishment for new researchSlide 59
Hymn to Aton - Pharaoh Akhenation Thou makes the Nile in t
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