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Paleohistory ) stone, mud tablets, wood, metal, papyrus, material ... strategies for chronometric dating in archaic exploration than to some other angle ...
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CONTACT INFORMATION 2902 North Leonard Road 64506 Office Phone: 232-6706 Social Science Office: 271-4340 Continuing Education: 271-4100 Office Fax: 232-6480 E-Mail:

Slide 2 Photo display on Tel Bethsaida Links to magnificent prehistoric studies sites Biographical information Syllabus and presents Archeology trip data Tel Bethsaida site

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Max Mallowan and Agatha Christie … "Who are you, sir?" to him I said, "For what is it you look?" His answer streamed through my head Like bloodstains in a book… ..

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"His intonations mellow were brimming with mind"… … .. "Five thousand years prior Is truly, when I consider it, The choicest age I know. Furthermore, once you figure out how to despise A.D. What\'s more, you have the talent, Then you could come and burrow with me, And never meander back."

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Continued the creator: But I was thinking how to push Some arsenic into tea, And would all be able to without a moment\'s delay alter My psyche so far B.C. I took a gander at him and delicately moaned, His face was charming as well… .. "Come let me know how you live?" I cried, And what it is you do?"

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EARLY ATTEMPTS AT Archeology: Antiquarians Collectors Classifiers Looters and Robbers

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Pseudo-archaic exploration Chariots of the Gods (van Daniken) King Tut\'s tomb The Pyramids

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Archeology The investigative investigation of the material stays of man\'s past… .. Exploratory study (Techniques, Methods, Theoretical Frameworks) Material remains Man\'s past

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THREE STEPS TO THIS DISCIPLINE: 1. Uncovering 2. Recording 3. Decipherment, clarification and elucidation

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Why Ancient Man Settled In The Same Location Water Land Defense

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THE FORMS OF Archeological DATA Artifacts Features Structures Ecofacts

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Classifier: Christian Thomsen Early 1800\'s Danish historical center custodian Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age

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STONE AGES Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): 700,000-15,000 B.C. Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age): 15,000-8300 B.C. Neolithic (New Stone Age): 8300-4200 B.C. Chalcolithic (Copper/Stone Age) 4200-3100 B.C.

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Prehistorical and Historical Writing created by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia 3,000 B.C. B.C. what\'s more, A.D. B.C.E. what\'s more, A.C.E. B.P. what\'s more, A.P.

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THE GREAT RIFT Louis and Mary Leakey; Richard Leakey Olduvai Gorge Lake Victoria: Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya

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James Breasted The Fertile Crescent Southwest end (Egypt): Nile River Valley Southeast end (Mesopotamia): Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey Jordan River Valley of Israel

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TEL MEGIDDO 120-180 feet high; 16 sections of land 22 strata Early Bronze (before 3300 B.C.) to Persian (600-350 B.C.)

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THE TOMB OF KING TUT Howard Carter 1907-1922 Valley of the Kings Lord Carnarvon

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DATING THE PAST 1. Verifiable records (present day to 3,000 B.C.) 2. Dendrochronology (back to 8000 BC) 3. Radiocarbon dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years back) 4. Potassium argon dating (250,000 B.C. to roots of early life)

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Two Sources of Information Written: (Historical or Text-helped Archeology ) stone, earth tablets, wood, metal, papyrus, material Unwritten (Prehistoric Archeology) structures, models, pottery, devices, weaponry, adornments, coins, nourishment, bones

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THE VALUE OF Archeology 1. It gives the shading to the high contrast portrayal of history 2. Verifiable records are in no way, shape or form complete 3. Helps in the interpretation and clarification of dialects 4. Approves some writing that was thought to be erroneous

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THE FERTILE CRESCENT James Breasted The Great Rift Olduvai Gorge

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Archeology "Archaios" and "logos" Zoology Psychology Anthropology Sociology

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The Scientific Study of Humanity Cultural Anthropology Physical Anthropology Archeology Linguistics

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HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN Homer\'s Iliad and Odyssey Troy and Mycenae, 1869 "The Greek Treasure" Sir Arthur Evans and the Minoans, 1899

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CERAMIC INDEX Sir Flinders Petrie, late 1800\'s Egyptian Predynastic tombs Diospolis Parva Based on artistic qualities Egyptian sequence the premise for most ordered plans

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Archeological DATA: STAGES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1. Securing 2. Fabricate 3. Utilize 4. Statement

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GOALS OF Archeology 1. Examining locales and their substance 2. Recreating past lifeways and history 3. Concentrating on social procedure 4. Understanding the archeological record which is a piece of our contemporary world

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TEL AND HORVAT Tel: a man-made slope ruin Tel: Arabic Horvat: Hebrew

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Debitage at Chaco Canyon Flint Flakes Evidence of exchanging Lookout point

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DATING THE PAST Historical records (present day to 3000 B.C.) Dendrochronology (present day to 8000 B.C.) Radiocarbon Dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years prior) Potassium Argon Dating (250,000 years back to the sources of life)

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CIVILIZATION A level of social fulfillment set apart by: Presence of composing Monumental design Stratified social framework

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ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION Ecology Population development Technology Irrigation Growth of exchange Warfare Religion

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NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION 1 st ground stone innovation 1 st taming of plants and creatures 1 st rural ventures 1 st populace blast 1 st engineering 1 st weaving from taming 1 st ceramics

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JERICHO Tel: 6 sections of land in region and 70 ft. high Oldest constantly occupied city Ideal environment Evidence of trained grains Trade system Defensive fortresses

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MESOPOTAMIA Tigris and Euphrates waterways Greek signifying "land between the streams" 600 miles in length; 250 miles wide Long, strongly hot summers Harsh, cool winters Rainfall: negligible and fluctuated

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MESOPOTAMIAN CONTRIBUTIONS Wheel Chariot Writing Metallurgy Mathematical elements of mulitiplication and division Lunar Calender

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MESOPOTAMIAN PERIODS Ubaid 5800-3000 B.C. Sumerian 3000-2300 B.C. Old Babylonian/Akkadian 2334-1600 BC Kassite/Hittite 1600-1300 B.C. Assyrian 1300-612 B.C. Babylonian/Medes 612-330 B.C.

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URUK: The World\'s first City Two advancements: composing and metallurgy 4500 B.C. 617 sections of land with towns stretching out as broad as 6 miles Dominated by a ziggurat (sanctuary hill)

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Sumer: The World of the First Cities 3500-3200 B.C.: lst enlightened region on the globe 3200-2000 B.C.: Sumerian Era lst 900 years had no brought together government City states: Uruk, Ur, Lagash 2320 B.C. all Sumer vanquished by a relentless warrior from Akkad (Sargon the Great)

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SARGON Ruler of Akkadian Civilization Conquered Sumerian Civilization Covered Sumer (south) and Akkad (north) Ur of the Chaldees: exhumed by Sir Leonard Wooley (Royal graveyard; arrangement of lords/rulers and entourage; one had 59 workers covered)

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Sumerian Civilization 3100-2334 B.C. No metal, timber, semiprecious stones Imported copper, gold and different minerals Widespread utilization of bronze Metal furrows; expanded farming yields all inclusive exchange system first utilization of dirt tablets for broad record keeping; Gilgamesh Epic

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CUNEIFORM Mesopotamia "Wedge-molded" Ideogram Stone engravings and mud tablets Mari: 20,000 tablets

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Cuneiform Deciphered Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895) Worked two years duplicating engraving; utilizing stepping stools, ropes and slings Behistun Stone Persian King Darius doing combating Gaumata with the assistance of god Ahuramazda Old Persian (414), Elamite (263), Akkadian (112)

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Hammurabi Ur offered approach to Babylon and its Semitic rulers Old Babylonian Empire 2334-1650 B.C. "Code of Hammurabi": 1792-1750 B.C. 282 laws

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HITTITE INTERLUDE From Anatolia (eastern Turkey) 1600 B.C. Capital: Hattusas Control of 3 mainlands and oceans Created light-chariot fighting; stallions Excavated in 1907 Archive of 20,000 tablets in Indo-European dialect

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Uluburun Ship Coast of southern Turkey; 1310 B.C. 350 copper ingots every measuring 60 lbs. Ton of sap in two-handles containers from Syria Ingots of blue glass; hardwood; golden; turtle shells; elephant tusks; hippo teeth; ostrich eggs; jugs of olives; substantial jugs loaded with Cannaanite and Mycenean earthenware

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Assyrian and Babylonian 900-539 B.C. Assyrian capital: Nineveh King Assurnasirpal\'s gathering Tiglath Pileser III obliterated Bethsaida in 732 B.C. Last awesome Assyrian ruler Assurbanipal kicked the bucket in 630 B.C. Babylonians assume control in 612 B.C.

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Sennacherib Assyrian 705-681 B.C. Capital: Nineveh Invasion of Israel in 702-701 B.C. Ten Lost Tribes

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Nebuchadnezzar 604-562 B.C. City of Babylon Walls of coated block Hanging gardens: one of the antiquated seven marvels of the world Invaded Israel in 587-586 B.C. State assumed control by Cyrus the Persian in 534 B.C.

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Archeological RESEARCH Several abilities utilized much sooner than unearthing starts as a part of the field: Theoretical aptitudes Methodological abilities Technical abilities Administrative/administrative aptitudes Writing and diagnostic abilities

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FORMULATION Problem/speculation definition Background research Feasibility concentrates on

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IMPLEMENTATION Permits Funding Logistics

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DATA ACQUISITION Reconnaissance Survey Excavation

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DATA PROCESSING Cleaning and preservation Cataloging Initial characterizations

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ANALYSIS Analytical groupings Temporal systems Spatial structures

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INTERPRETATION Application of hypotheses Cultural recorded and/or Cultural processual hypothesis

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PUBLICATION AND RESTORATION Final reports Research comes about utilized as an establishment for new research

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Hymn to Aton - Pharaoh Akhenation Thou makes the Nile in t

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