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Jar Testing Coagulation Dosage Water Treatment Plants. WQT 134 Aquatic Chemistry II Determining ALUM Coagulation Rates. Week 8 Objectives . Reading assignment:
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Bump Testing Coagulation Dosage Water Treatment Plants WQT 134 Aquatic Chemistry II Determining ALUM Coagulation Rates

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Week 8 Objectives Reading task: Tech Brief: Jar Testing Understand how to test pH, turbidity, and shading on crude water test Understand Jar Testing/Coagulation science Understand the part of pH, alkalinity, turbidity, temperature on coagulation and flocculation application

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Key Words Coagulation: including and quick blending of chemicals to expel particles from water. (streak blending) Flocculation: including and moderate blending of chemicals and particles to make flocs that settle out of water. Turbidity: suspended, broke up, and colloidal particles in pretreated water that should be evacuated to upgrade treatment proficiency.

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Jar Testing Steps Fill the Phipps and Bird jolt testing device holders with 1000 ml of test water. Mark every Beaker #1 include 1 liter of water =control, Beaker #2 include 2 ml of alum=2 mg/L, Beaker #3 include 5 ml of alum=5 mg/L, Beaker #4 include 10 ml of alum=10 mg/L, Beaker #5 include 15 ml of alum=15 mg/L, Beaker #6 include 20 ml of alum=20 mg/L Add the coagulant to every compartment and blend at roughly 100 rpm for 1 minute (record state of flocs amid quick blend coagulation). Decrease the mixing velocity to 25 to 35 rpm and keep blending for 15 to 20 minutes(record state of flocs like clockwork on information sheet underneath). Figure out which coagulant measurements has the best flocculation time and the most floc settled out. Test the turbidity of the water in every measuring glass utilizing a turbidimeter (record esteem on information sheet).

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Jar Testing Experimental Design Add 1 liter of water Label every Beaker #1 =control Beaker #2 include 2 ml of alum=2 mg/L Beaker #3 include 5 ml of alum=5 mg/L Beaker #4 include 10 ml of alum=10 mg/L Beaker #5 include 15 ml of alum=15 mg/L Beaker #6 include 20 ml of alum=20 mg/L #1 control #2 2 mg/L #3 5mg/L #4 10 mg/L #5 15 mg/L #6 20 mg/L Rapid blend 100 rpm for 1 min Record floc conditions Slow blend 25 rpm for 15 min Record floc conditions each 5 min Let settle for 10 min Determine ideal coagulant dose. Record Turbidity on ideal coagulant measurements

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Jar Testing Results A cloudy example demonstrates poor coagulation. Legitimately coagulated water contains floc particles that are all around framed and thick, with the fluid between the particles clear.

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In deciding the correct measurement of alum, the most helpful test is the _______ test: a. marble b. jostle c. carbonate d. pH

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Which of the accompanying is the principle reason for the coagulation/flocculation prepare? a. to expel turbidity b. to mollify the water c. to include oxygen d. to sterilize.

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The most critical crude water constituent for a surface water plant is: a. temperature b. hardness c. turbidity d. pH

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A research facility methodology for assessing coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation is called what? Temperature profile Turbidity evacuation proficiency Treatability consider Jar testing

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Coagulation and Flocculation at Water Treatment Plants "Incidentally, it is simpler to tidy up grimy water than to make clean water more clean. The reason is on account of particles must crash before they can stick together to make bigger flocs. More particles means more crashes."

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Turbidity – particles (sand, sediment, dirt, microscopic organisms, infections) in the underlying source water that should be expelled to enhance treatment. 1. Suspended Solids 2. Colloidal Solids (~0.1 to 1 m) 3. Disintegrated Solids (<0.02 m) 0.02 ntu Treated 2 1 3 7 ntu Raw water 375 ntu discharge

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The turbidity of a water treatment plant emanating can\'t be above? 5 ntu 1 ntu .5 ntu .3 ntu

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Coagulation Coagulants have a tendency to be emphatically charged.  Due to their positive charge, they are pulled in to the negative particles in the water The blend of positive and negative charge brings about an unbiased , or need, of charge Van der Waal\'s strengths allude to the propensity of particles in nature to draw in each other feebly on the off chance that they have no charge. 

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Water Treatment Coagulants Particles in water are negative; coagulants more often than not decidedly charged. 1. Alum-aluminum sulfate 2. Ferric chloride or ferrous sulfate 3. Polymers

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What decides the ideal and most financially savvy measure of a coagulant to use?: Beyond that dosage, it takes an expansive increment in the measure of substance to create a little increment in turbidity evacuation Below that dosage the coagulant brings about poor settling The treatment plant spending Divide the quantity of gallons of water in the coagulation tank by the nephelometric turbidity unit perusing to decide the dose in mg/L.

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Which is NOT a typical technique for deciding ideal coagulant viability?: Jar test Zeta potential finder Streaming momentum locator Colorimetric strategy

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Water Treatment Coagulant Alum-(aluminum sulfate)- particles suspended in characteristic, untreated water ordinarily convey a negative electrical charge. These particles are pulled in to the positive charges made by aluminum hydroxides. Measurements is for the most part around 25 mg/L. 1. Trivalent Al +3 charge draws in neg – particles 2. Shapes flocs of aluminum hydroxide (AlOH 3 ). 3. Affected by blending, alkalinity, turbidity and temp. 4. Perfect pH go 5.8-8.5

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Alum CHEMISTRY Alum-(aluminum sulfate)- made by dissolving aluminum hydroxide (bauxite or mud) in sulfuric corrosive 2Al(OH) 3 + 3H 2 SO 4 + 10H 2 O → Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·16H 2 O When ALUM is disintegrated in antacid water, it experiences hydrolysis (responds with water) to deliver a high surface region thick encourage of aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH) 3 (gibbsite) (Al(OH) 3 sticks the negatives. At the point when ALUM is responded with water it hydrolyzes to frame aluminum hydroxide and weaken sulfuric corrosive (brings down pH). - Need alkalinity alteration

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Alum CHEMISTRY Alum-(aluminum sulfate)- Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·14H 2 O 2Al +3 +3SO 4 - 2 +14H 2 O 2Al +3 + adversely charged colloids nonpartisan surface charge WHY IS ALKALINITY SO IMPORTANT?? 2Al +3 + 6 HCO 3 - 2(Al(OH 3 ) (S) + 6CO 2 No bicarbonate (low alkalinity, low pH sulfuric corrosive!): Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ·14H 2 O 2(Al(OH3) (S) +3H 2 SO 4 - 2 +14H 2 O Optimum pH: 5.5 to 6.5 Operating pH: 5 to8

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When alum is added to water, a floc is framed from the mix of alum and a. alkalinity b. corrosive c. chlorine d. lime

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The accelerate framed by coagulation with alum is aluminum ________. Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide Sulfate

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Adding Alum to water will bring about the pH of the water to increment. Genuine False

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Alum comes in dry review as at least 17.5% unadulterated item, in fluid frame it is 49% immaculate or 8.23% by weight Al 2 O 3 ? Genuine False

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Overcoming issues of frosty water floc can be rectified by working the procedure at the best pH for that water temperature, expanding the coagulant measurements, or: Adding weighting operators Performing the jug test Increasing the number and quality of floc particles Increasing the confinement time for floc development

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Which of the accompanying conditions most influence coagulation execution? a. speed, chlorine measurements, confinement time, and air temperature b. speed, water temperature, detainment time and coagulant measurement c. water temperature, detainment time, air temperature, and chlorine measurements d. detainment time, speed, air temperature, and chlorine dose

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With the happening to winter, the water temperature drops. A conceivable operational issue at a filtration plant with coagulation is: Floc remainder from the sedimentation framework High chlorine leftover High alkalinity Odor

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Water Treatment Coagulant Aids Activated silica (sodium silicate)- enhances coagulation, diminishes volume of coagulant vital. Regularly is sodium silicate. 1. auxiliary coagulant 2. decreases essential coagulants required 3. Sodium silicate are soluble 4. augments pH extend for coagulation 5. utilized at 7-11% of alum 6. Heavier denser floc that settles quicker 7. Can be shaped nearby 8. Erosion inhibitor (shapes a surface covering)

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The three most generally utilized coagulants as a part of water treatment are: Aluminum hydroxide, lime and sodium hydroxide Aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulfate Lime, sodium hydroxide, and chlorine Soda, lime and chlorine

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Which of the accompanying would in all probability enhance the coagulation/flocculation handle? a. increment in crude water hardness b. diminish in water temperature c. increment in water temperature d. diminish in crude water alkalinity

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Water Treatment Coagulant Aids Polyelectrolytes-are water-solvent natural polymers that are utilized as both essential coagulants and coagulant helps. Go about as "bridges" between the effectively shaped particles : • Anionic—ionize in answer for frame negative locales along the polymer atom. • Cationic—ionize to shape positive locales. • Non-ionic—extremely slight ionization. adequacy: particles sort, turbidity exhibit, and the turbulence (blending) accessible amid coagulation.

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Which one of the accompanying chemicals would be most reasonable as a channel help? a. alum b. pop fiery debris c. sodium hydroxide d. anionic polymer

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Water Treatment Coagulant/pH Alkalinity-Alkalinity is a measure of the buffering limit of water. These buffering materials are essentially the bases bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ), and carbonate (CO 3 2-), and sporadically hydroxide (OH - ), borates, silicates, phosphates, ammonium, sulfides, and natural ligands. C

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