Contrast and the acknowledgment of schwa vowels in English .

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Contrast and the realization of schwa vowels in English. Edward Flemming. Introduction. The project: To derive properties of phonetic and phonological vowel reduction from general constraints related to speech production and perception Outline of the talk: Outline a model of vowel reduction.
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Differentiate and the acknowledgment of schwa vowels in English Edward Flemming

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Introduction The venture: To determine properties of phonetic and phonological vowel diminishment from general limitations identified with discourse creation and discernment Outline of the discussion: Outline a model of vowel decrease. Investigate its application to English vowel lessening (\'decrease to schwa\').

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Phonological vowel lessening Vowel differentiations are killed in unstressed syllables. E.g. Southern Italian (Mistretta vernacular, Mazzola 1976) Primary stressed: Elsewhere: i u i u e o a a focused on vowels unstressed vowels [ i ] v i¤ n˘i \'he sells\' v i n˘i¤mu \'we offer\' [e] v e@ ni \'he comes\' ( v i ni¤mu \'we come\') [a ] a@ vi \'he has\' a vi¤ti \'he has\' [o] m o@ ri \'he dies\' ( m u ri¤mu \'we kick the bucket\') [ u ] u@ Ô˘i \'he boils\' u Ô˘i¤mu \'we bubble\'

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Phonological vowel lessening Common examples of vowel diminishment: (a) i u (b) i u (c) i u e o e o a/" E ç a a (a) decreases to (b), e.g. Standard Italian, B. Portuguese, Slovene (b) lessens to (c), e.g. Standard Russian, S. Italian, Catalan (a) decreases to (c), e.g. E. Catalan Reduction to a solitary vowel, e.g. English, Dutch, Salish Primarily balance of stature differentiations.

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Outline of an investigation of vowel lessening Vowel diminishment is in a general sense persuaded by undershoot in short unstressed syllables.

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Phonetic vowel lessening - Undershoot

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Outline of an examination of vowel diminishment Vowel decrease is on a very basic level inspired by undershoot in short unstressed syllables. Brief length of unstressed vowels expands the exertion required to accomplish unmistakable vowel qualities, especially low vowels (Lindblom 1963). Differences are liable to uniqueness requirements, so balance happens where phonetic diminishment would somehow render differentiates deficiently unmistakable.

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Undershoot as a result of exertion minimization Faster developments are more effortful (Nelson 1983, Perkell et al 2002). In a CVC succession, the articulators need to move to and from the position for the vowel. Undershoot comes about because of maintaining a strategic distance from quick developments.

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Formant undershoot as a component of span and separation Lindblom\'s model: F 2V = k 2 (F 2i – F 2t )e -  T + F 2t if F1 t  375 Hz: F 1V = F1 t if F1 t > 375 Hz F 1V = k 1 ( 375 – F 1t )e -  T + F 1t F 2i is F2 at C discharge F 1t , F 2t are V formant targets k,  rely on upon consonant setting More undershoot where: Vowel is shorter Distance amongst C and V is more noteworthy

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Formant undershoot as an element of length and separation Lindblom\'s model: F 2V = k 2 (F 2i – F 2t )e -  T + F 2t if F1 t  375 Hz: F 1V = F1 t if F1 t > 375 Hz F 1V = k 1 ( 375 – F 1t )e -  T + F 1t F 2i is F2 at C discharge F 1t , F 2t are V formant targets k,  rely on upon consonant setting More undershoot where: Vowel is shorter Distance amongst C and V is more prominent

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Implementation of the model of vowel diminishment Stressed and unstressed inventories of differentiating vowel classifications are chosen from a space of conceivable vowels in order to best fulfill limitations on complexities: Maximize peculiarity of differences. Augment number of complexities. Minimize articulatory exertion. Exertion minimization suggests undershoot.

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Model of vowel decrease The vowel space is demonstrated on Liljencrants and Lindblom (1972).

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i. Augment the uniqueness of complexities Distinctiveness of the difference between V i and V j is the (weighted) remove between the vowels in formant space. Where x n is F2 of V n in Bark y n is F1 of V n in Bark a < 1

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i. Expand the peculiarity of complexities Overall uniqueness cost of a vowel framework relies on upon the base separation found in either stock. where Cost:

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ii. Amplify the quantity of complexities expand the quantity of vowels in the pushed and unstressed vowel inventories. Taken a toll: where

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iii. Articulatory exertion The space of conceivable vowels contracts as vowel length is lessened, after the undershoot capacities proposed by Lindblom (1963) Consonants are accepted to acclimatize in part to the vowel focus in F2, yet not in F1.

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Overall cost work The ideal vowel framework is the one that best fulfills these limitations: (subject to vowel space requirement)

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Optimal inventories a = 0.14, k 1 = 1.5,  1 = 0.008, k 2 =1.5,  1 = 0.01, c = 0.27, F2 l = 1400 Hz, w n = 6 Durations: focused on 160 ms Unstressed 100 ms

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Italian vowels Data from Albano Leoni et al 1995

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Undershoot and vowel decrease Relating phonological vowel diminishment to undershoot clarifies: The inclination to kill vowel differentiates in short unstressed syllables. The speculation that vowel diminishment principally wipes out tallness contrasts. The speculation that killing vowel decrease is joined by phonetic diminishment.

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English lessening to schwa English displays an example of vowel decrease whereby vowel quality differences are killed in unstressed syllables. The subsequent vowel is generally deciphered as schwa [ " ] atom »QR\'m atomic \'»tHAmIk

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Reduction to "schwa" Predictions of the undershoot display: Reduction to a solitary vowel ought to be doubtlessly where vowels are short. Where there is a solitary vowel, uniqueness of vowel quality differences is unimportant, so exertion minimization ought to command. So schwa ought to be a transitional vowel, maximally acclimatized to the encompassing setting. \'targetless schwa\'

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Minimum exertion vowels Minimal deviation from the limited choking influences for encompassing consonants brings about low F1 (a high vowel) in light of the fact that any narrowing over the pharynx brings down F1. Negligible deviation from the tongue body and lip positions for encompassing consonants and vowels brings about relevantly factor F2. In any case, schwa is regularly said to be a mid focal vowel.

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Experiment 1: English schwa vowels ( inquire about with Stephanie Johnson) Materials

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Experiment 1 Also recorded full vowels for correlation. regard [ i ], covered up [ I ], head [ E ], had [ Q ], odd [ A ], hood [ U ], who [ u ] Spoken in bearer express \'Say ___ to me\'. 9 female speakers of American English. Measured initial two formants at the mid purpose of the vowels. look at every now and again did not have any voiced vowel in the main syllable, so it was barred from examination.

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Results Non-last schwa: Low F1 (mean 425 Hz) F2 is logically factor.

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Results Non-last schwa: Low F1 (mean 425 Hz) F2 is relevantly factor. Last schwa: F1 indicates wide range (mean 665 Hz). A lot of this is between-speaker variety. Focal F2 (mean 1772 Hz)

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Results Final schwa: F1 indicates wide range (mean 665 Hz). A lot of this is between-speaker variety. vocal tract measure nature of conclusive schwa ([ " ] - [ √ ])

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Two examples of vowel lessening The contrast amongst last and non-last schwa vowels can translated as far as the undershoot model of vowel decrease. There are two degrees of unstressed vowel diminishment, contingent upon trademark vowel span.

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Two examples of vowel diminishment Final unstressed vowels are longer than non-last unstressed vowels: 153 ms versus 64 ms. Probably an aftereffect of definite extending. Takes into account a lower schwa vowel, which in turns takes into account the upkeep of differences The vowels [ i, \', oU ] and rhotic [\'\' ] differentiate in unstressed syllables differentiate in total word-last position. Non-last schwa does not insignificantly appear differently in relation to other vowel qualities. Thusly it is absorbed to setting.

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The relationship amongst\'s differentiation and decreased vowel quality similar connection between\'s arrangement of differences and diminished vowel quality is seen crosswise over dialects: Contextually factor high vowels just is by all accounts found where all vowel quality complexities are killed, e.g. Dutch (van Bergem 1994), presumably Montana Salish. Mid focal [ " ] is found conversely with higher vowels, e.g. decreased vowel inventories of the shape [ i, \', u ] happen in unstressed syllables in Russian (Padgett and Tabain 2003), E. Bulgarian (Wood and Pettersson 1988), Catalan (Herrick 2003), and in last unstressed syllables in Brazilian Portuguese (Mattoso Camara 1972).

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The connection amongst\'s differentiation and decreased vowel quality Central Catalan focused and unstressed vowels (Herrick 2003). i u e o " E ç a

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Experiment 2: Targetless schwa This examination speculates that the non-last lessened vowel in English is a base exertion vowel. So far in view of impressionistic assessment of a generally unsystematic example of average schwa vowels.

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Experiment 2: Targetless schwa Systematically shift the previous and taking after setting of average schwa. Inquiries: Does inconstancy of schwa include absorption to the encompassing setting? Is there any confirmation that schwa has a vowel quality target? Conclusions: Much of the fluctuation of schwa can be ascribed to digestion. Schwa does not have a vowel quality target, however it is not totally targetless - its objective is to be a vowel.

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Materials Nonce expressions of the shape: [ » bV 1 C 1 \'« C 2 V 2 t] All blends of V 1 from { i, œ, u } C n from {b, d, g} V 2 from { i, A, u } (81 words) Subjects were told to demonstrate the stretch example on words like spread and parakeet. e.g. » bid\'«gut, » bQg\'«bit, and so on

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Materials All words were perused in the sentence outline: \'X. Do you comprehend what a X is?\' Presented twice in irregular request (just second run is broke down here). Perused by four na

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