Controlling Activity.


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Directing Liveliness 數位內容學院 遊戲開發研究班第一期 3D 圖學 沈育德 Edward Shen May 19, 2005 Course Data Date : 5/19, 5/21, 5/26, 5/28 (2005) Speaker : Edward Yu-Te Shen 沈育德 Course Site: http://graphics.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~edwards/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=lecture Instructor 沈育德 , Edward Shen
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Controlling Animation 數位內容學院 遊戲開發研究班第一期 3D 圖學 沈育德 Edward Shen May 19, 2005

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Course Information Date : 5/19, 5/21, 5/26, 5/28 (2005) Lecturer : Edward Yu-Te Shen 沈育德 Course Website: http://graphics.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~edwards/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=lecture

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Lecturer 沈育德 , Edward Shen PhD Candidate (1 st year) Graphics bunch, Dept. of CSIE, National Taiwan University http://graphics.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~edwards/edwards@cmlab.csie.ntu.edu.tw

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Introduction to Steering Animation System demo – Dove Introduction to guiding conduct Hierarchy of movement practices Java applet demo Steering styles Trial of the OpenSteer library Most of the substance today bases on Reynolds, C. W. (1999) Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters, in the procedures of Game Developers Conference 1999, California. Pages 763-782.

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System Demo – Dove

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Introduction to Steering Animation System demo – Dove Introduction to guiding conduct Hierarchy of movement practices Java applet demo Steering styles Trial of the OpenSteer library Most of the substance today bases on Reynolds, C. W. (1999) Steering Behaviors For Autonomous Characters, in the procedures of Game Developers Conference 1999, California. Pages 763-782.

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Steering Behavior Steering vi. ( 不及物動詞 intransitive verb ) 1. 掌舵 , 操舵 ; 駕駛 , 操縱 2. 沿著某一方向前進 3. 駕馭 vt. ( 及物動詞 transitive verb ) 1. 為 ( 船 ) 掌舵 , 駕駛 ( 汽車、飛機等 ) 2. 沿著 ( 某一方向 ) 前進 , 取 ( 道 ) 3. 指導 , 控制

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Steering Behavior The capacity of animals to explore around their reality in an existence like and improvisational way Steering conduct is one of the key parts in building self-ruling specialists in liveliness Important in making movies that tell stories, recreations, and other virtual reality applications

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Applications Source: http://www.imdb.com/display/ss/0266543/FNC-131.jpg http://www.conitec.net/gallery.htm http://www.lordoftherings.net/legend/exhibition/

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Crowd (Flocking) Behavior Flocks of feathered creatures Schools of fishes Herds of area creatures

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Flocks: Lots of Contrasts Made up of discrete fowls: general movement appears to be liquid Simple in idea: complex scene Randomly showed: gloriously synchronized. The solid impression of purposeful, unified control: just the total aftereffect of individual creatures, every acting in view its could call its own neighborhood observation.

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Difficulties Scripting ways for individual characters Tedious for expansive measure of characters Hard to keep up the herd movement requirements (e.g. impact anticipation) Hard to alter Not perfect for effective, strong, convincing group activity

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A Distributed Approach A group is thought to be the cooperation\'s aftereffect between practices of individual characters Simulating so as to simulate the group the people

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Introduction to Steering Animation System demo – Dove Introduction to controlling conduct Hierarchy of movement practices Java applet demo Steering styles Trial of the OpenSteer library

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Consider a Herd of Cattle… A dairy animals meanders far from the crowd. The trail supervisor advises a cattle rustler to bring the stray. The cattle rustler says “giddy-up” to his stallion and aides it to the dairy animals, potentially keeping away from impediments along the way. In this case, the trail supervisor speaks to activity determination : seeing that the world\'s condition has changed (a dairy animals left the group) and setting an objective (recover the stray).

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Consider a Herd of Cattle… (cont’d) The directing level is spoken to by the cowhand S ub - objectives : approach the cow, stay away from snags, recover the dairy animals. A sub - objective relates to a controlling conduct for the cattle rustler and-stallion group. Utilizing different control signals (vocal summons, goads, reins) the cowpoke directs his steed towards the objective. All in all terms, these signs express ideas like: go quicker, go slower, turn right, turn left, etc.

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Consider a Herd of Cattle… (cont’d) The stallion executes the headway level. Taking the cowboy’s control signals as info, the stallion moves in the showed bearing. This movement is the aftereffect of a perplexing collaboration of the horse’s visual observation, its feeling of parity, and its muscles applying torques to the joints of its skeleton.

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The Hierarchy of Motion Behavior Action Selection: methodology, objectives, arranging Steering: way determination Locomotion: activity, enunciation

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Path-Finding A subject identified with, yet isolate from our theme. A pursuit issue, can be accomplished by A* or Dijkstra’s calculation Used in RenderWare AI

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“Fast” Motion Running v.s. creeping The characters’ common speeds are substantial in respect to their most extreme increasing velocities Therefore, the controlling conduct must expect the future, and take account inevitable outcomes of current activities

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Introduction to Steering Animation System demo – Dove Introduction to guiding conduct Hierarchy of movement practices Java applet demo Steering styles Trial of the OpenSteer library

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Java Applet Demo

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Introduction to Steering Animation System demo – Dove Introduction to guiding conduct Hierarchy of movement practices Java applet demo Steering styles Trial of the OpenSteer library

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Steering Behaviors At every time step, a character displays a speed vector, and will apply another controlling power as indicated by the aftereffect of its activity determination The controlling power comprises of turning power, braking power, et cetera

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Seek and Flee Adjusting so as to steer towards a predefined position the speed adjusted to it Different from the appealing power (gravity) Steering power not the same as the fancied speed Contrast with Arrive Inverse of Seek: Flee desired_velocity = standardize (position - target) * max_speed ; guiding = desired_velocity - speed ;

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Pursuit and Evade Similar to Seek, however the objective is moving Future position is anticipated at every time step Position(T units of time later on): scaling the speed by T and adding it to the present position Inverse of Pursuit: Evade Steer far from the anticipated future position of the objective

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Offset Pursuit Passes close, yet not specifically into a moving target Flying sufficiently close to be inside of weapon extent without slamming into the objective Compute an objective point given a range R from the target’s anticipated position, and look for the point

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Arrival Identical to Seek while the character is a long way from its objective Slow down as drawing closer the objective, in the end easing back to a stop incidental with the objective The coveted speed is cut to max_speed outside the halting sweep, and inside it is inclined down (e.g. straightly) to zero.

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Obstacle Avoidance Unlike Flee , Obstacle Avoidance makes a move just when a close-by impediment straightforwardly before it. Accept that both the character and deterrent can be sensibly approximated as circles Cylinder for recognizing potential crash “Most threatening” character Return 0 if no snags

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Wandering Random controlling power produces “twitchy” movement Retaining guiding course states and make little irregular removals utilizing a circle ahead. See [Beer90] and [Tu96] for Explore and Forage controlling styles

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Path Following The individual ways go close, and regularly parallel to, the centerline, however are allowed to go astray from it. On the off chance that far way at first, first approach, then tail it.

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Wall Following Path Following (Surface way) + Offset Pursuit

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Unaligned Collision Avoidance Prevent running into one another If every close-by character are adjusted , a less perplexing method ( Separation ) can be utilized Steer to dismiss, quicken or decelerate to counteract potential impacts

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Group of Characters Separation , Cohesion , and Alignment identify with gatherings of Characters outside the area are overlooked

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Separation Maintain a sure partition separation from others First, discover those inside of the predetermined neighborhood Each neighbor contributes a shocking power with a weighting quality (e.g. 1/r)

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Cohesion Giving the capacity to stick with (methodology and structure a gathering with) other close-by characters After discovering neighbors, process the “average position” (or “center of gravity”) of them Seek that position

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Alignment Align a character with (that is, head in the same bearing and/or rate as) close-by characters Use the normal speed or forward vector as wanted speed

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Flocking/Crowd Behavior Combining Separation , Cohesion , and Alignment guiding styles Better normalizing the three segments, and afterward summing with weighting parameters Therefore, running conduct is determined by nine numerical parameters: a weight, a separation and an edge (to characterize the area) for each of the segments.

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Leader Following One or more characters taking aft

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