Correspondence and coordinated effort models .


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chapter 14. communication and collaboration models. CSCW Issues and Theory. All computer systems have group impact not just groupware Ignoring this leads to the failure of systems Look at several levels – minutiae to large scale context: face-to-face communication conversation
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part 14 correspondence and joint effort models

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CSCW Issues and Theory All PC frameworks have amass affect not recently groupware Ignoring this prompts the disappointment of frameworks Look at a few levels – particulars to expansive scale setting: eye to eye correspondence discussion content based correspondence aggregate working

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Face-to-face correspondence Most primitive and most unpretentious type of correspondence Often observed as the worldview for PC intervened correspondence?

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Transfer impacts convey desires into electronic media … in some cases with sad results may translate disappointment as inconsiderateness of associate e.g. individual space video may decimate shared impression of separation joyfully the `glass divider\' impact helps

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Eye contact to pass on intrigue and set up social nearness video may ruin coordinate eye contact (see video burrow, chap 19) however low quality video superior to sound just

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Gestures and non-verbal communication quite a bit of our correspondence is through our bodies signal (and eye stare) utilized for deictic reference head and shoulders video loses this So … close center for eye contact … or wide center for non-verbal communication?

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Back channels Alison: Do you favor that film … blunder 1 … `The Green\' um 2 … it begins at eight. Brian: Great! Not only the words! Back channel reactions from Brian at 1 and 2 curious at 1 agreed at 2

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Back channels (ctd) Back channels include: gestures and frowns shrugs of the shoulders snorts and cocked eyebrows Utterance starts obscure … then hones up simply enough

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Back channels - media impacts Restricting media confines back channels video – loss of non-verbal communication audio – loss of outward appearance half duplex – lose most voice back-channel responses content based – nothing left!

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Back directs and turn-taking in a meeting … speaker offers the floor (fraction of a second hole) audience asks for the floor (facial expression, little commotion) Grunts, " um \'s and " ah \'s, can be utilized by the: audience to assert the floor speaker to hold the floor … however regularly too calm for half-duplex channels e.g. Trans-mainland meetings – exceptional issue slack can surpass the turn taking hole … prompts a monolog!

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Basic conversational structure Alison: Do you favor that film Brian: the uh ( 500 ms ) with the dark feline \'The Green whatsit\' Alison: yeah, go at uh … ( takes a gander at watch – 1.2 s ) … 20 to? Brian: sure Smallest unit is the articulation Turn taking  expressions typically exchange …

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Adjacency sets Simplest structure – contiguousness combine Adjacency sets may settle: Brian: Do you need some gateau? Alison: is it exceptionally swelling? Brian: yes, extremely Alison: and bunches of chocolate? Brian: masses Alison: I\'ll have a major cut then. Structure is: B-x, A-y, B-y, A-z, B-z, A-x inward matches regularly for illumination … yet, have a go at breaking down the principal transcript in detail!

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deictic reference Context in discussion Utterances are very vague We utilize setting to disambiguate: Brian: ( focuses ) that post is inclining a bit Alison: that\'s the one you put in Two sorts of setting: outside setting – reference to nature e.g., Brian\'s " that " – the thing pointed to inner setting – reference to past discussion e.g., Alison\'s " that " – the exact opposite thing talked about

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Referring to things – deixis Often relevant expressions include indexicals: that , this , he , she , it these might be utilized for inward or outer setting Also clear expressions might be utilized: outside: " the corner post is inclining somewhat\' interior: " the post you specified\' In up close and personal discussion can point

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Common Ground Resolving setting relies on upon significance  members must share meaning so more likely than not shared information Conversation continually arranges meaning … a procedure called establishing : Alison: So, you turn right adjacent to the stream. Brian: past the bar. Alison: yeah … Each expression is thought to be: important – promotes the present theme accommodating – understandable to audience

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Focus and subject Context determined in respect to current exchange center Alison: Oh, take a gander at your roses : Brian: mmm, however I\'ve experienced difficulty with greenfly. Alison: they\'re the image of the English summer. Brian: greenfly? Alison: no roses senseless! Following themes is one approach to examine discussion. Alison starts – subject is roses Brian shifts theme to greenfly Alison misses move in center … breakdown

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Breakdown happens at all levels: topic, indexicals, signal Breakdowns are visit, yet excess makes identification simple (Brian can\'t translate " they\'re … summer\' ) individuals great at repair (Brain and Alison rapidly reestablish shared center) Electronic media may lose some repetition  breakdown more extreme

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Speech act hypothesis A particular type of conversational investigation Utterances portrayed by what they do … … they are acts e.g. " I\'m eager\' propositional meaning – hunger expected impact – " get me some nourishment\' Basic conversational act the illocutionary point: guarantees, demands, assertions, … Speech acts require not be talked e.g. hush frequently translated as acknowledgment …

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Patterns of acts & Coordinator Generic examples of acts can be distinguished Conversation for activity (CfA) viewed as focal Basis for groupware device Coordinator organized email framework clients must fit inside CfA structure not loved by clients!

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Conversations for activity (CfA) Circles speak to "states" in the discussion Arcs speak to articulations (discourse acts)

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CfA in real life Simplest highway 1–5: Alison: have you got the market study on chocolate mousse? ask for Brian: sure guarantee Brian: there you are affirm Alison: thanks announce More mind boggling courses conceivable, e.g., 1–2–6–3 … Alison: have you got … ask for Brian: I\'ve just got the rundown figures counter Alison: that\'ll do acknowledge

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Text-based correspondence Most normal media for offbeat groupware exceptions: voice message, reply telephones Familiar medium, like paper letters but, electronic content may go about as discourse substitute! Sorts of electronic content: discrete coordinated messages, no structure direct messages included (in transient request) non-straight hypertext linkages spatial two dimensional course of action what\'s more, linkages may exist to different curios

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Problems with content No outward appearance or non-verbal communication  powerless back channels So, hard to pass on: full of feeling state – glad, miserable, … illocutionary drive – earnest, vital, … Participants adjust: \'flaming\' and smilies ;- ) :- ( :- )

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case – "Conferencer" straight discussion range – LHS RHS – spatial reproduced pinboard

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Pin board has comparable granularity \'cards\' lone show up on other members\' screens when alter/creation is affirmed Note isolate \'piece box\' – transcript just overhauled when commitment "sent" – granularity is the commitment Pin board has comparable granularity \'cards\' lone show up on other members\' screens when alter/creation is affirmed Note isolate \'arrangement box\' – transcript just upgraded when commitment "sent" – granularity is the commitment Conferencer (ctd)

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Grounding requirements Establishing shared conviction relies on upon establishing limitations cotemporality – instant feedthrough simultaneity – speaking together sequence – utterances requested Often weaker in content based correspondence e.g., loss of succession in straight content

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loss of arrangement Network delays or coarse granularity  cover 1. Bethan: how numerous ought to be in the gathering? 2. Rowena: maybe this could be one of the 4 most grounded reasons 3. Rowena: please illuminate what you mean 4. Bethan: I concur 5. Rowena: hang on 6. Rowena: Bethan what did you mean? Message sets 1&2 and 3&4 formed all the while – absence of normal experience Rowena: 2 1 3 4 5 6 Bethan: 1 2 4 3 5 6 N.B. breakdown of turn-taking because of poor back channels

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Maintaining setting Recall setting was key for disambiguation Text loses outer setting, consequently deixis (but, connecting to shared articles can help) 1. Alison: Brian is very brave roses 2. Brian: I\'m anxious they\'re secured in greenfly 3. Clarise: I\'ve seen them, they\'re lovely Both (2) and (3) react to (1) … however transcript proposes greenfly are wonderful!

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Non-straight discussion 1. Alison: Brian is very brave roses hypertext-based or strung message frameworks look after "parallel" discussions 2. Brian: I\'m perplexed they\'re covered in greenfly 3. Clarise: I\'ve seen them they\'re excellent 4. Clarise: have you attempted companion planting?

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Pace and granularity Pace of discussion – the rate of turn taking face-to-face – every few moments telephone – half a moment email – hours or days up close and personal discussion is exceptionally intuitive beginning expression is obscure input gives signals for appreciation bring down pace  less criticism  less intelligent

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Coping methodologies People are extremely shrewd! they make adapting methodologies when things are troublesome Coping systems for ease back correspondence endeavor to expand granularity: enthusiasm – looking ahead in the discussion amusement Brian: Like some tea? Drain or lemon? multiplexing – a few themes in one expression Alison: No much obliged. I cherish your roses.

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The Conversation Game Conversation resemble a diversion Linear content completes one way it Participants pick the way by their expressions Hypertext

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