Course Data: 91.546 PC Illustrations I.


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Course Data: 91.546 PC Illustrations I Educator: Dr. Hugh Masterman The Miter Company 781-271-3248 email: hcm@mitre.org Texts: Intuitive PC Design (4 th version) Angel, Edward Addison Wesley 2001 ISBN 0-321-32137-5
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Course Information: 91.546 Computer Graphics I Instructor: Dr. Hugh Masterman The Miter Corporation 781-271-3248 email: hcm@mitre.org Texts: Interactive Computer Graphics (4 th release) Angel, Edward Addison Wesley 2001 ISBN 0-321-32137-5 OpenGL Programming Guide (4 th version) Neider, Davis, &Woo Addison Wesley 1999 ISBN 0-321-17348-1 Website: http://www.cs.uml.edu/~hmasterm/graphics1.html

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Computer Graphics Computer design is the control worried with all parts of delivering pictures or pictures utilizing a PC. Intuitive PC representation suggests client is insider savvy of criticism procedure: Graphics System User Display React to Change Image Input Device

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History of Computer Graphics Whirlwind PC at MIT: SAGE (1950s) Sketchpad (Ivan Sutherland, MIT 1963) Computer Aided Design (CAD) 1965 - Simulators (c.1975-) Bitmap graphical client interfaces (late 70s) Virtual reality (late 80s - ) Computer liveliness Visualization Computer workmanship Web/Internet based illustrations For a more point by point recorded course of events

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Graphics: Conceptual Model Real Light Human Eye Real Object Synthetic Light Source Synthetic Camera Human Eye Synthetic Model Real Object Display Device Graphics System

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Computer Graphics Conceptual Model Output Devices Application Program Application Model Graphics System Input Devices

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What is an Image?

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X-beams Light IR Radio 350 l (nm) 780 Nature of Light Electromagnetic (wave) radiation: l Amplitude: L Frequency: n Velocity: c Particle: Ray spread Quantum vitality E=h n

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Direction, Amplitude, Wavelength: ( d, L, l ) l Characterization of Light Is this enough? Genuine light once in a while comprises of a solitary wavelength!

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Human Eye

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Human Perception of Color Sb Sg Sr L( l ) l

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Metameric Colors

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RGB Color Space G Green (0,1,0) Yellow (1,1,0) White (1,1,1) Cyan (0,1,1) Red (1,0,0) R Blk Blue (0,0,1) Magenta (1,0,1) B

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CIE Color Chart

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Additive Color Red Magenta Yellow White Cyan Blue Green

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Hard duplicate Printers Dot network Ink plane Thermal exchange Laser Plotters Soft duplicate CRT Flat board LCD Electroluminescent Plasma Projector Output Devices

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Market for Display Technologies

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Cathode Ray Tube

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Color Shadow Mask CRT

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Color CRT Phosphor Pattern Versus Spot Size

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530 520 0.8 540 510 Green 0.7 l c nm 550 AMLCD (Metal Halide) 560 0.6 Green 570 500 0.5 Green 580 CRT 590 y 0.4 600 610 Red 620 Red 490 0.3 640 Blue 770 0.2 AMLCD (Halogen) 480 0.1 Blue 470 Blue 460 450 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Color Gamut: 1996

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Weight versus Screen Diagonal

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Volume Versus Screen Diagonal

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Cathode Ray Tubes Advantages Limitations Very LOW cost Large volume/weight Good visual quality Size < 45 crawls Wide survey angle Repeatability Simple grayscale High voltage Simple tending to Large assembling base

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CRT: Raster Scan

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Unpolarized Light Source Light Source Rear Linear Polarizer Polarized Light REAR GLASS REAR GLASS Polymeric 90 Degree Alignment Layer "Twist" FRONT GLASS FRONT GLASS Liquid-Crystal Molecules Transparent Transmitted No Light Electrodes Light Transmission ( ~ < 10% Source) Front Linear Polarizer Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

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Flat Panel Pixel Arrangements

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Liquid Crystal Displays Advantages Limitations Thin/low weight Image size < 13 inches (detached) Rugged and reliable < 16 inches (dynamic framework) Low voltage drivers Response time (passive) Premium cost (dynamic grid) Limited review angle Limited temperature range

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CRT Projection System Liquid Cooled CRT Multielement Lens Assembly CRT: 5 to 13 Inches Lens: F1.0 to F1.2 Screen Red Video Drive Electronics Video Green Blue Deflection Electronics Digital Convergence Static/Dynamic Focus Video Control Microprocessor System Automatic Convergence – Multisync Autolock Control – Convergence and Setup Files – Automatic Convergence Control – Diagnostics – On-Line Setup Instructions – Remote Control IR Line Remote Control RS232/422 Remote Status/Control

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Reflection Mirror G Dichroic Projection Reflector Lens Metal-Halide R Lamp B Reflection Mirror Liquid-Crystal Condenser UV, IR Filter Panel Lens LCD Projector Dichroic Mirrors

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Head-Mounted Displays (1999) CyberEye 200 180K Pixels/LCD 27.5 deg. FOV Weight 14 oz. ~$2,500 Kaiser ProView 30 300K Pixels/LCD 30 deg. FOV Weight 32 oz. ~$8,000 N-Vision Datavisor 80 1,300K Pixels/CRT 80 deg. FOV Weight 64 oz. ~$100,000

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CAVE accessible monetarily from Pyramid Systems, Inc.

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Display Common Raster Display System Architecture Frame Buffer Video Controller Memory CPU System Bus I/O

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Display Common Single Address Space Raster Display System Architecture Frame Buffer Video Controller Memory CPU System Bus Display Processor I/O

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I/O Display Processor DP Memory Frame Buffer Raster Display System Architecture With Peripheral Display Processor System Memory CPU System Bus Video Controller Display

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D/A Converter Monochrome Frame Buffer Bit n CRT 1 0 1 0 1 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1

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Color Frame Buffer CRT Red D/A Green D/A Blue D/A Bit n 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1

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1 0 1 0 1 Bit n Bit 4 Bit 3 Bit 2 Bit 1 Video Look-up Table = 179 CRT Look Up Table Red D/A Green D/A Blue D/A 177 178 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 179 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 180

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SAGE Air Defense System: ca. 1958

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Ivan Sutherland Sketchpad (1963)

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Computer Art

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Computer Art

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Screen Shot: Xerox Star ca. 1974

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Data Visualization

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Weather Visualization

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Computer Aided Design

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Early Night Simulator ca. 1970

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Raster Graphics Daylight Simulator

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MD90 Cockpit Simulator

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Military Simulation: Realistic Environment

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NASA VR .:tslides

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