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Writing is the essential object of investigation of every single abstract studie; this study is ... From established times, writing implied anything in print, whatever is composed or ...
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Crítica Anglosajona 2007-2008 Prof. J. A. Álvarez Amorós

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http://www.ua.es/individual/jalvarez

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions Philology and Filología : the same word however very distinctive implications in English and Spanish In English, it indicates the diachronic investigation of dialect , particularly the verifiable phases of the dialect like Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English, and so on. "Philology" is pretty much the same as "verifiable etymology." In Spanish, the importance of this term is impressively more extensive. "Filología" implies the investigation of a society , both from the phonetic and artistic perspectives, by method for the examination and elucidation of its writings , whether oral or composed. As can be seen, the Spanish importance incorporates the English one.

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions Two arrangements of connections can be set up as an aftereffect of the division made in the general assemblage of Philology in the Spanish feeling of the term: One between abstract history , from one perspective, and scholarly hypothesis and feedback , on the other. Abstract studies were set up as a vigorously authentic and academic control. Consequently, the improvement of artistic studies all through the twentieth century can be seen as a supported exertion with respect to scholarly feedback to accomplish an autonomous status from abstract history, and in addition an unmistakable arrangement of articles and techniques (see Wellek and Warren, Theory of Literature , and R. S. Crane, "History versus Criticism in the Study of Literature"). Another between writing , from one viewpoint, and artistic hypothesis and feedback , on the other. Writing is the essential object of investigation of all abstract studies; this study is completed by method for the instruments gave by scholarly hypothesis and feedback; yet in the event that we wish to concentrate how these instruments created throughout the hundreds of years, artistic hypothesis and feedback get to be sencondary objects of study or metaobjects.

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions Literary hypothesis and feedback appreciate in this way a double status inside the system simply depicted: They can be considered instruments when they are utilized to increase new bits of knowledge into the artistic gem. They can likewise be objects of study in themselves when we concentrate on their history, their associations with different controls, and so on. So, they constitute an object of study when we educate the understudies how abstract writings have been contemplated and deciphered throughout the hundreds of years , however they turn into an instrument when we instruct the understudy how he himself can concentrate on and translate them .

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions Crítica Anglosajona Critical Writings Literary works

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions The significance of the term writing has changed significantly throughout the hundreds of years in a manner that our contemporary thought of it goes back to the nineteenth century as it were. It has endured what one could call applied narrowing , a continuous procedure of specialization that has driven it to signify a logically more restricted region of importance. One could call attention to three expansive stages in this procedure of advancement: From traditional times, writing implied anything in print , whatever is composed or printed, composed or printed matter. Later, the significance of writing got to be smaller : it came to signify works having perfection of structure or expression and communicating thoughts of changeless or widespread interest. From the nineteenth century onwards, the term writing obtains its cutting edge sense. Two new conditions: (a) creative ability and fictionality (b) stylish worth .

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions (B) Literature = compositions with perfection of structure and communicating crucial thoughts (A) Literature = anything in print (C) Literature = works in light of creative ability and fictionality, and blessed with tasteful worth

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Lesson 1: Literature, Literary Criticism, and Philology: Some Key Notions This extremely contract thought of writing is prevalent these days and, as usual, there are positions for and against it: Wellek trusts that this narrowing down of the idea of writing was very helpful , on the grounds that it made ready for the foundation of an abstract science with clear points of confinement and strategies, a move which would have been unthinkable if the recognizable proof of writing with society or human advancement had proceeded. (That is to say, if the abstract content had kept on being related to any recognized or mentally extraordinary content.) Hirsch , in actuality, despises the incorporation of writing in the domain of craftsmanship basically on instructive grounds (see his article "What Isn\'t Literature?"). Numerous works which were esteemed abstract in the nineteenth century are no more concentrated (principally articles). In his view, this involves an undesirable impoverishment of general society.

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Lesson 2: Specific versus Non-Specific Views of the Literary Phenomenon However, the exact presence of a marvel called "writing," with clear breaking points and descriptible elements, has been in uncertainty for a few decades now, and, as could be normal, there are two contradicted sees on this matter : First , we have the individuals who trust that the wonder called writing exists dispassionately , it can be portrayed and characterized, being artistic quality the target quality shared by every scholarly content, whatever this quality may be observed to be. The Russian formalists, for example, talked about a differentia specifica that segregates the scholarly dialect from the non-artistic one, and this distinction could be depicted and concentrated on taking after techniques by and large asserted to be "investigative." This position will be named the particular perspective of writing . As a set perusing delineating this perspective, I propose Hirsch\'s paper "What Isn\'t Literature?," however, from generally veering edges, it is very broad among formalist hovers (see for occasion Jakobson\'s observed "Etymology and Poetics").

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Lesson 2: Specific versus Non-Specific Views of the Literary Phenomenon Second , we have the individuals who can\'t help contradicting the judgment skills faith in the presence of writing as an exceptional and unbiasedly perceptible use/assortment of dialect. They for the most part trust that the push to keep writing isolated from other phonetic practices is yet an endeavor to propagate it as a specific, arcane, precluding field, blocked off to ideological examination thus the protect of a social tip top. They propose to utilize the same instruments for the investigation of writing with respect to the examination of, say, the every day press and battle to deconstruct traditions and generalizations created around the possibility of writing. This position will be known as the non-particular perspective of writing , in light of the fact that its supporters don\'t put stock in the particular, target presence of the scholarly wonder. The set perusing pushing this position is Roger Fowler\'s reference book article "Writing."

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Lesson 2: Specific versus Non-Specific Views of the Literary Phenomenon The particular origination of writing is sorted out by method for two restrictions which continuously cover a smaller field: The central resistance is that amongst writing and non-writing ; as can be seen, it is vital if writing must be separated from other etymological employments. Another restriction happens between the cliché ideas of good writing and terrible writing or subliterature and the criteria used to characterize it are strongly evaluative. Perplexity between these two resistances ought to be stayed away from: for a bit of composing to be writing is not the same as being great writing .

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Lesson 2: Specific versus Non-Specific Views of the Literary Phenomenon The restriction amongst writing and non-writing — which is essential to any exchange of the issue of abstract specificity—can be analyzed from four edges each of them highlighting an alternate capacity of the artistic wonder and offering ascend to a particular hypothesis to represent its presence. These four points are the mimetic , the down to business , the expressive , and the goal (M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp ). Each of these four methodologies concentrates on one part of the marvel called abstract work — individually, the spoke to world , the peruser , the creator , and the artistic work itself—yet all through history it can be effectively seen that there are periods accentuating the investigation of one of these segments to the disadvantage of the others and consequently they can be taken as perspectives to set up the historical backdrop of Western scholarly hypothesis.

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Lesson 2: Specific versus Non-Specific Views of the Literary Phenomenon Author Literary Reader Work Represented World

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Lesson 2: Specific versus Non-Specific Views of the Literary Phenomenon The mimetic capacity of writing is the limit it needs to speak to a genuine or created world, whether verisimilar or non-verisimilar When the down to earth capacity prevails, there rises a thought of writing which appears to be expressly confined to condition the reaction of perusers and serve as a helpful vehicle of philosophies . The expressive capacity assumes control toward the start of the nineteenth century with the coming of Romanticism. Writing is no more seen as an impression of the encompassing scene, yet rather as "an unconstrained flood of effective sentiments " as William Wordsworth characterized it in the 1800 introduction to the Lyrical Ballads . Verse is no more impersonation of an outer reality yet of

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