Critical thinking And Choice Making.


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Definition. Critical thinking alludes to dynamic endeavors to find what must be done to accomplish an objective that is not promptly feasible.. Sorts of Problems (Greeno). Issues of Inducing StructureProblems of ArrangementProblems of Transformation. Ways to deal with Problem Solving. Trial
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Slide 1

Critical thinking And Decision Making Chapter 8

Slide 2

Definition Problem explaining alludes to dynamic endeavors to find what must be done to accomplish an objective that is not promptly achievable.

Slide 3

Types of Problems (Greeno) Problems of Inducing Structure Problems of Arrangement Problems of Transformation

Slide 4

Approaches to Problem Solving Trial & Error Heuristics Forming Subgoals ( Tower of Hanoi ) Working Backwards (Water Lilies) Using Analogies (Tumor) Reenvisioning the Problem

Slide 5

Barriers to Effective Problem Solving Irrelevant (Distracting) Information Functional Fixedness (Screw Driver) Mental Set Unnecessary Constraints

Slide 6

Decision Making Two sorts of choices Making decisions (selecting among options) Taking chances (choosing in the midst of vulnerability)

Slide 7

Selecting Among Alternatives Strategies Additive Subtractive (Elimination of Aspects)

Slide 8

Making "Dangerous" Decisions Risky Decisions (Tversky & Kahneman) Factors Influencing Risky Decisions Using Probabilities Expected Value Subjective Utility Factors that Affect Probability Estimates Heuristics Availability Representativeness Ignoring Base Rates The Conjunction Fallacy Alternative Outcomes Effect Framing the Question

Slide 9

Classic View Irrational Prone to blunders & botches Mentally restricted Evolutionary View Specialized cognizance is versatile Rational Fast and Frugal heuristics work Humans as Decision Makers Dual Process Theories Intuitive Thinking Rational Thinking

Slide 10

$20 $1 Reducing Regret after Decisions Told next individual errands were fun and fascinating Cognitive Dissonance Theory Asked the amount they appreciated test Boring Tasks Told next individual assignments were fun and intriguing

Slide 11

Making Decisions in Groups Group Polarization Groupthink

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Risky Neutral Cautious Group Polarization Group Polarization-propensity to move toward more great positions after gathering exchange

Slide 13

Groupthink-disorder of awful basic leadership 12.17

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