CS 551/651: Structure of Spoken Language Lecture 4: Characteristics of Manner of Articulation John-Paul Hosom Fall 2008Slide 2
Self-Study If you need to take a gander at spectrograms of your own voice, there are a few projects accessible: Matlab Use the "specgram" order; shading guide can be changed using "colormap dim" or comparable summons CSLU Toolkit Download from http://www.cslu.ogi.edu/toolbox Registration required yet free for instructive utilize Plot spectrograms with "SpeechView" apparatus. Praat Download from http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/ Free and accessible for windows, lunix, Macintosh, and so onSlide 3
Two Vowels: "appropriate"Slide 4
Two Vowels: "overwhelming oak"Slide 5
Two Vowels: "reapply"Slide 6
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Approximately 8 behavior of explanation: Name Sub-Types Examples . Vowel vowel, diphthong aa, iy, uw, eh, ow, … Approximant liquid, glide l, r, w, y Nasal m, n, ng Plosive unvoiced, voiced p, t, k, b, d, g Fricative unvoiced, voiced f, th, s, sh, v, dh, z, zh Affricate unvoiced, voiced ch, jh Aspiration h Flap dx, nx Change in way of explanation typically unexpected and obvious; way gives much data about area of phonemes.Slide 7
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Approximants (/l/,/r/,/w/,/y/): vowel-like properties, however more tightening/l/has tongue-tip touching alveolar edge,/r/has tongue tip nestled into/(retroflex), raised and "bunched" dorsum, sides of tongue touching molars,/w/has tongue back and lips adjusted,/y/has tongue toward front and high floats (/w/,/y/) can be seen as "extraordinary" creation of a vowel (now and then called semivowels): /w/ /uw/ /y/ /iy/Slide 8
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Approximants (/l/,/r/,/w/,/y/): development of tongue slower than other vowel-to-vowel or consonant-to-vowel moves, yet not as moderate as diphthong development here and there voiceless when taking after a voiceless plosive ("play")/l/may have slight brokenness when tongue makes/breaks contact with alveolar edge; different approximants have no irregularitySlide 9
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Nasal (/m/,/n/,/ng/): delivered with velic port open and obstacle in vocal tract sound goes through nasal depressions these pits channel discourse with both posts (resonances) and zeros (hostile to resonances) longer pathway causes essential reverberation to be low (220-300 Hz) against resonances cause higher frequencies to have bring down power F1 P1 F3 F2 F4 P2/m/F5 F6 Z1 Z2Slide 10
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Nasal (/m/,/n/,/ng/): formant structure darkened by shaft zero sets each of the three English nasals look and sound comparative (place of verbalization has little impact on range); can be recognized principally by coarticulatory consequences for neighboring vowel(s). at times exceptionally concise term ("camp", "champ") intermittent disarray with/w/,/l/(if F3 not obvious), and conclusion bit of voiced plosives regularly sharp intermittence with contiguous vowel adjoining vowel might be nasalizedSlide 11
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Plosive (Oral Stop) (/p/,/t/,/k/,/b/,/d/,/g/): conclusion along vocal tract (lips, alveolar edge, velum) development of pneumatic stress behind conclusion arrival of conclusion burst of air conceivable yearning taking after burst complex process, a few changes over brief time traverse some setting subordinate characteristics, some semi-invariant ones voiced blasts in some cases have "voice bar" in low-recurrence area, brought on by vocal overlay vibration with finish oral and velic conclusion. in some cases voice bar is fantastic sign; once in a while can be mistaken for a nasalSlide 12
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation/p ah p//t ah t//k ah k/Slide 13
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Plosive (Oral Stop) (/p/,/t/,/k/,/b/,/d/,/g/): conclusion and time required to assemble weight brings about "hush" district of range before burst wind current is a stage capacity, which gets to be distinctly like a drive, which has parallel vitality at all frequencies character of a plosive contained in (no less than) three zones: (1) voice-onset-time (VOT)/span of goal (2) formant moves in neighboring vowels/approximants (3) phantom state of burst "voiced" plosives may not demonstrate any genuine voicing (!)Slide 14
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Fricative (/f/,/th/,/s/,/sh/,/v/,/dh/,/z/,/zh/): fricatives delivered by constraining air through a narrowing in the mouth tightening found anyplace from the labiodental area (/f/,/v/) to palato-alveolar locale (/sh/,/zh/) every English fricative come in voiced and unvoiced assortments voicing may not be available in voiced fricatives (!), making term an essential recognizing prompt (voiced shorter) the area and sort of the choking make ghostly hostile to resonances and in addition resonances the fundamental contrast between/s/and/f/is in frequencies over 4000 Hz; phone band discourse has farthest point of 4KHz.Slide 15
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Fricative (/f/,/th/,/s/,/sh/,/v/,/dh/,/z/,/zh/): Rules for recognizing/dh/and/v/:/dh/ - formant structure is obviously unmistakable OR frication is more grounded at 5000 Hz and not all that solid at low frequencies/v/ - formants not noticeable at area of most extreme frication OR low-recurrence vitality is as solid as the vitality at 5000 Hz However, because of the trouble of recognizing/dh/from/v/and recognizing/th/from/f/, in the spectrogram perusing practices we will regard them as the same.Slide 16
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Affricate (/ch/,/jh/): Affricates are reasonably similar to diphthongs: two separate phonemes considered as one English has two affricates: /ch/ /t sh//jh/ /d zh/Sometimes prompt to affricate is in blasted going before fricative; in conclusion amongst vowel and fricative. Some of the time prompt to affricate is in voicing or span.Slide 17
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Aspiration (/h/): like vowels, aside from normally no voicing can as a rule see formant structure formant designs like encompassing vowel(s)/ah h aw s/= "a house"Slide 18
Acoustic-Phonetic Features: Manner of Articulation Flaps (/dx/,/nx/): allophone of/t/,/d/, or/n/extremely concise length; no conclusion for/dx/showed by dunk in vitality and F2 close to 1800 Hz "compose another"Slide 19
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives as a rule can separate fricatives into "solid" and "powerless": solid =/s/,/sh/,/z/,/zh/feeble =/f/,/v/,/th/,/dh/voicing might be available just on the move into a voiced fricative; some of the time not in the least voiced fricatives have a tendency to be shorter than unvoiced, in respect to the term of the neighboring vowel place of enunciation causes some change fit as a fiddle:/sh/and/zh/have more noteworthy vitality at lower recurrence than/s/,/z/Slide 20
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/th/some of the time has adjoining vowel\'s F3, F4, F5 stretch out into/th/, conversely with/f//th/and/f/regularly have frail vitality amid center some portion of fricative now and again/f/and/th/best recognized by formant moves of neighboring vowel(s)… more labial versus more alveolar attributes of moves. in some cases/f/has solid low-recurrence vitality (breath commotion in a nearby talking mouthpiece) now and then/th/has all the more high-recurrence vitality over 4 kHzSlide 21
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/f iy th iy s iy sh iy/Slide 22
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/v iy dh iy z iy zh iy/Slide 23
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/f ah th ah s ah sh ah/Slide 24
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/v ah dh ah z ah zh ah/Slide 25
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/f aa th aa s aa sh aa/Slide 26
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/v aa dh aa z aa zh aa/Slide 27
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/iy f iy th iy s iy sh/Slide 28
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/iy v iy dh iy z iy zh/Slide 29
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/ah f ah th ah s ah sh/Slide 30
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/ah v ah dh ah z ah zh/Slide 31
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/aa f aa th aa s aa sh/Slide 32
Spectrogram Reading: Fricatives/aa v aa dh aa z aa zh/
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