CS4550: PC Systems II open telecom systems.


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open telecom systems
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CS4550: Computer Networks II open media transmission systems

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"open" telecom systems US telco systems : history, business, legislative issues US telco systems: essential structure digital TV systems remote systems global phone systems future (?) - fiber to the home?

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US telco systems : history development of phone: ~1876 Alex. G. Chime, Elisha Gray, P. Reis unique phone licenses: 1876,77 spread of phone organizations: 1893-4 to 1901 foundation of AT&T, its strategies, imposing business model in 3 regions

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US telco systems : history quiet a-telephone, pres. address, and so on antitrust claims : 1921, 1956, 1984 divestiture of 1984 other LD organizations, Baby Bells, and so forth. following 1984 1996: second divestiture and TC Act late occasions

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US telco systems : business by and large exceptionally beneficial, in light of the fact that telephone utility general (in US) -nearby administration organizations regularly appreciate imposing business models -ATT delighted in 3 restraining infrastructures (<1984), ensured by gov\'t numerous years -ATT sponsored neighborhood administration by cheating on long separation (<84)

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US telco systems : legislative issues frequently have had real impact on broadcast communications industry -organizations are expansive, have numerous clients (voters) -telecom. key to advanced economy -control of interchanges is force (political, financial) on occasion gov\'t has ensured imposing business models; now and again, stripped them -antitrust laws

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US telco nets : structure < 1984 ATT appreciated syndications in 3 regions: -neighborhood telco administration -long separation -system gear telco system partitioned into 5-level progression

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US telco nets : nearby circles nearby circle; "end office" or focal office; star topology; application. 19K in US telephone wound pair telephone to l.d. switch end office telephone

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PBX : private branch trade an exclusive phone switch; empowers organizations, and so forth to have own private nearby telephone arrange a few eras; latest are computerized, fit for information and voice interface with open telco through a "trunk," or higher limit line centrex - comparative administration, however claimed and kept up by the telco

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telco switch - non specific outline exchanging network control unit ... system interface ... ... ... trunks advanced/simple gadgets

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US telco nets : structure < 1984 local switch (10) ATT l.d. structure < 84 - basic chain of importance, increased by pair lines - simple outline, however not most proficient utilization of assets end office (19000)

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US telco nets : structure < 1984 AT&T was real telco in US, biggest in world ( approximations underneath) - 70% of neighborhood phones in US -99% of l.d. movement -99% telecom hardware -1,000,000 representatives -all out income was 2% of yearly GNP of US

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US telco nets : structure < 1984 AT&T before 1984 22 BOCs (Bell Operating Companies) - - > neighborhood telephone utility Western Electric - - > gear Long lines division - - > long separation administration Bell Telephone labs - - > research lab "national asset"

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AT&T : divestiture foundation : 1956 assent order 1974 : US DOJ brought suit against ATT for infringement of antitrust law. Charged that ATT "prevented profits by securing free and focused business sector to buyers of media communications gear and administration" settlement arranged following quite a while of transactions and softball

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AT&T divestiture, results 22 BOCs isolated, assembled into 7 RBOCs to give "square with access" RBOCs may offer yet NOT fabricate CPE ATT held WE, long lines, a portion of Bell labs Bell labs split amongst ATT and RBOCs (Bellcore) 161 LATAs characterized ATT discharged from 1956 pronouncement

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LATA nearby get to transport zone characterizes limits neighborhood telcos can\'t cross; so 3 sorts of calls neighborhood (genuinely neighborhood) - no charge ; Monterey to Monterey nearby get to : toll charge to neighborhood organization (Monterey to Salinas) long separation : must utilize a long separation organization (Monterey - San Jose)

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AT&T since 1984 l.d. offer has diminished from 95%+ to ~60% or less, still entirely beneficial representatives - > ~300,000 (until 96) wandered into PCs - fizzled twice (ATT PC, NCR buy) purchased out Craig McCaw\'s cell organization - > cell system gone to all advanced system second divestiture, 1996 (- - > 180,000) has consent to converge with TCI

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telecom since 1984 AT&T doing admirably, yet just 1 of a few noteworthy organizations Sprint, MCI real contenders after 84 Worldcom-MCI merger created real telecom power Lucent Tech. - > another force telecom in different nations have moved towards rivalry, opportunity innovation pushed ahead quicker than at any other time

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telco organizations today, US ATT, Sprint, MCI-Worldcom ; GTE unique 7 RBOCs : Pacific Telesis; Nynex; Ameritech; US West ; Southwestern Bell (now SBC); Bell Atlantic; Bell South. mergers have decreased these SBC purchased Pacific Telesis, and pending Ameritech Nynex and Bell Atlantic combined GTE may converge with Bell Atlantic

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some present and future patterns all systems focalizing towards information organizing (Internet) i.e., voice, TV link and web get to be 1 system TCI-ATT merger pending Sprint-Cisco concurrence on information system will have higher transfer speed accessible to home & all through

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TV link systems intended for TV communicate to homes utilizes coaxial link : 1 TV station has 6 MHz, or 1500 voice stations; 1 link can convey many station to convey voice/information, changing gear should be altered. Television stations can give rivalry to voice, and higher pace web access ATT-TCI merger: ATT wants to utilize TV link for voice and information to enter home.

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TV link - long separation combo ATT long separation system TV link system

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cell nets : remote telephones focal station, and base stations

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cell nets : remote telephones base stations convey through radio signs with end clients rivalry for nearby telephone and constrained information. Experiences issues inborn in remote media - derivation, limit, handoffs between cells; however these are being tended to. security likewise more troublesome

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satellite systems : iridium, and so forth iridium venture : Motorola and others; as of now has 80-90 satellites in circle other contending will presumably be costly, yet an overall system for voice information

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web communication effectively here... will show signs of improvement quality not exactly traditional, yet as rate enhances, this will an excessive number of parts of world have poor telephone entrance; this might be the best approach to bring administration, and break nationalistic imposing business models (e.g., Telmex) and US telco restraining infrastructures

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global telco synopsis US most progressive, yet western Europe, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, others close quite a bit of world - India, China, Indonesia, Mexico/Latin America - a long ways behind; despite everything some have syndications (e.g. Telmex) some driving internat\'l organizations: Erricson, Deutche Telecom, British Telecom, Cable and Wireless, Hong Kong Telecom, NTT Lucent Tech., MCI-Worldcom, Sprint-Cisco, ATT, GTE , SWB

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future : fiber to the home? high limit of fiber has definitely adjusted universe of telecom separation of ATT 1984 has likewise radically enhanced advancement fiber to the home? some anticipate this, may happen; yet in whatever structure, we can expect higher limit web and phone access... conceivably through TV link... furthermore, proceeded with advancement in correspondences

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