Curing and Sausage Making Safe Food Principles Retail Meat & Poultry Processing Training ModulesSlide 2
Produced under a Cooperative Agreement from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) Developed by: Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Dairy and Food Inspection Division Hennepin County Environmental Health Minnesota Department of Health University of Minnesota Extension Service September 2004Slide 3
History Sausage definition Types of frankfurter Role of fixings Function of Cure rates Casing name prerequisites HACCP Plan Critical control focuses Steps in handling Cooking temperatures Cooling rules Packaging Labeling necessity Storage and showcase Jerky TopicsSlide 5
Learning Objectives List 3 sorts of hotdog. Name 4 fundamental fixings and their motivation. Clarify the capacity of cure and satisfactory cure rates. Distinguish the basic control purposes of a HACCP arrangement in wiener making. Recount the cooling necessities for frankfurter. List 4 things that are required on a wiener mark.Slide 6
Sausage History Sausage generation is one of the soonest types of nourishment safeguarding The word hotdog is gotten from the Latin word "Salsus" which implies salted meatSlide 7
Role of Salt assumes a more restricted part in frankfurter conservation today Present day salt levels give to a lesser extent an additive impact than the more elevated amounts of the past Most wiener formulas contain 1-3% Salt levels are normally balanced for tasteSlide 8
Sausage Definition: A blend of ground or hacked meats joined with flavors and different fixings and generally framed or formed in housings of different sizesSlide 9
Primary Sausage Types Fresh Sausages Cooked Sausages Fermented Sausages Meat Loaves and Jellied ProductsSlide 10
Fresh Sausages Raw/uncooked meat item Does not contain the "curing " fixing nitrite or nitrate Examples are: crisp pork frankfurter, new bratwurst, and new Italian frankfurterSlide 11
Cooked Sausage Fully cooked prepared to-eat hotdogs Most are additionally smoked yet might be water or steam cooked too May be eaten without warming Examples include: wieners, smoked frankfurters, bologna, cooked bratwurstSlide 12
Fermented Sausages Have a trademark "tart" flavor Produced through maturation by lactic corrosive creating microscopic organisms or the immediate option of typified acids These hotdogs can be rack stable with the correct measure of drying and fermentation Semi-dry: summer wiener and nibble sticks Dry: pepperoni, hard salamiSlide 13
Meat rolls and Jellied Products Loaves: Mixtures of slashed meat that are typically "shaped" and cooked in skillet or metal molds Examples: pickle and pimento piece and nectar chunk Jellied items: comprise of a cooked blend of meat lumps put in gelatin Examples: jellied meal hamburger and head cheddar Head CheeseSlide 14
Sausage Ingredients: Meat Salt Spices Cure Reducing Agents Binders and Extenders Water CasingsSlide 15
Meat Use just new meat in great condition and from an endorsed source. Keep up all meats at a temperature of 41°F or less amid capacity and creation before cooking.Slide 16
Salt is a vital element for flavor It helps in safeguarding a few hotdogs It is vital for removing the "dissolvable" meat protein that is in charge of restricting the frankfurter together when the wiener is warmed Most wieners contain 1-3 % saltSlide 17
Spices All flavors and flavoring ought to be new to accomplish greatest and steady flavors Store seasonings at 55°F or underneath in sealed shut holders to look after freshnessSlide 18
Meat Curing Ingredients Nitrates and nitrites are the normal "curing" fixings utilized as a part of the creation of frankfurter Nitrite is the aggravate that recognizes crisp items from cured items Nitrate is changed over to nitrite amid the aging and cooking processSlide 19
Function of Cure gives insurance against the development of botulism broadens timeframe of realistic usability balances out the kind of the cured meat used to accomplish the trademark flavor and shadingSlide 20
Cure: Caution !! A lot of : can be dangerous to people! Too little : can bring about the development of unsafe microscopic organisms! Government directions: most extreme of 2.75 ounces of sodium or potassium nitrate per 100 pounds of cleaved meat, or 0.25 ounces of sodium or potassium nitrite per 100 pounds of hacked meatSlide 21
Cure Rates are Critical! Most cures are included the type of business premixes Use the cure premixes as indicated by named headings just Any utilization other than as per named bearings will deliver a perilous and illicit itemSlide 22
Addition of Cure Ingredients Today we utilize infusion, tumbling and direct blending of cure fixings Tumbling powers the cure into the muscle under vacuum Other strategies include: Dry rubbing Artery pumping Soaking in saline solution containing cureSlide 23
Curing Accelerators Speed up the curing procedure, decrease the holding time Examples are ascorbic corrosive (vitamin C) or sodium erythorbate (isoascorbic corrosive) Must be utilized by bearingsSlide 24
Binders and Extenders Binders - Help to enhance season and hold common juices. Extenders - Can diminish the expense of frankfurter detailing. Illustrations: nonfat dry milk, oat flours, and soy protein itemsSlide 25
Water Added to rehydrate the nonfat dry drain and to supplant the normal dampness misfortune amid smoking and concocting to 10 percent by weight of water might be added to most frankfurters No water is added to hotdogs that will be driedSlide 26
Casings are either common or engineered Natural housings are from sheep, swine, or dairy cattle digestion tracts or fabricated from collagen (a creature protein) Synthetic housings are typically produced using celluloseSlide 27
Casing Label Requirements Beginning Sept. 5, 2001 FSIS controls require wiener producers to name the wellspring of common hotdog housings on the off chance that they are gotten from an alternate kind of meat or poultry than the meat or poultry encased in the frankfurter. Frankfurter items encased in recovered collagen housings will need to have an announcement on the name revealing the utilization of recovered collagen . (The preparing of recovered collagen housings renders the recognition of the species proteins unthinkable).Slide 28
Product Identity and Standards Processor must be acquainted with the Standard of Identity for the items delivered. Government controls are certain in restricting the fat substance, the measure of water included, the nearness of extenders and assortment meats in hotdogs.Slide 29
HACCP Plan An appropriate HACCP arrangement ought to be taken after for the sheltered generation of meat items. A HACCP arrangement gives a watchful examination of the dangers and portrays basic control indicates in the process control these risks.Slide 30
Steps in Processing Particle Size Reduction: Grind; Chop; Mince; Shred; Chunk Mixing: Mixers; Massager; Tumblers: Chopper: Emulsifier Stuffing Linking/Tying Fermenting (discretionary) Smoking/Cooking Chilling Peeling/PackagingSlide 31
Cooking (CCP) All meat items must be cooked to the obliged temperature to kill pathogens 158°F is viewed as sufficient for pork and hamburger 160°F is viewed as satisfactory for poultry Internal cook temperature and cook times must be precisely checked and recordedSlide 32
Cooling FSIS Compliance Guidelines suggest that cooked meat items be cooled to underneath 80°F in under 1.5 hours and beneath 40°F in under 5 hoursSlide 33
Packaging Care must be taken to avert cross pollution of cooked meats preceding bundling Specific methodology must be taken after if cooked meat items are vacuum bundledSlide 34
Packaging When bundling prepared to-eat sustenances, limit exposed hand contact Utensils, tissues or gloves must be utilizedSlide 35
Labeling All prepackaged meat items must be legitimately named to incorporate the accompanying: Product name Ingredient proclamation containing a complete rundown of fixings. Taking care of/perishability articulation "Keep Refrigerated" or "Keep Frozen" must be given on all items that are not rack stable. Safe taking care of directions must be given on prepackaged crude meats. Explanation of net weight Name and address of the maker/merchantSlide 36
Storage and Display All meat items must be held at a temperature of 41°F or underneath while away or show Raw meats must be put away beneath and far from cooked meatsSlide 37
Jerky Meat cut into slight strips and afterward dried to safeguard It can be seasoned or treated amid the drying procedure to enhance flavor or nourishing substanceSlide 38
Jerky Made from hamburger, venison, moose, elk, impala and other diversion creatures Trim the majority of the fat and film that you can as you cut up the meat Cut the meat into flimsy strips over the grain of the meat The more slender the strips are, the speedier it will drySlide 39
Drying Jerky Lay out strips on a sheet in a solitary layer Lay the meat cuts on a flame broil or mesh that permits air to achieve all parts of the cut Store in a cool dry range in a fixed holder after it is all around cooledSlide 40
Jerky meat with c ure can be frosty smoked or dried at lower temperatures Jerky meat without cure must be cooked or handled at temperatures more prominent than 160 º FSlide 41
Summary Properly arranged frankfurter and meat items : add to purchaser accommodation improve shading and flavor redesign the estimation of crude materials increment the timeframe of realistic usability add to the wellbeing of the itemSlide 42
Wrap-Up Do you have any inquiries? What data was new? By what method will you apply what you realized today? PosttestSlide 43
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