Dar al-Islam.

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Dar al-Islam Homestead Islam 7 th century Arabia Exchange between Byzantium, Sassanid Iran, and Axum (Ethiopia ) Mecca's Pre-Islamic Establishments Adam and Eve: Holy place and Tomb Circumambulation by Noah's ark Abraham (Ibrahim), Ismael, and Hagar 1892 BCE Zamzam spring Modified holy place—Ka'ba
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Dar al-Islam Abode of Islam

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7 th century Arabia Trade between Byzantium, Sassanid Iran, and Axum (Ethiopia )

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Mecca’s Pre-Islamic Foundations Adam and Eve: Shrine and Tomb Circumambulation by Noah’s ark Abraham (Ibrahim), Ismael, and Hagar 1892 BCE Zamzam spring Rebuilt shrine—Ka’ba Gods in the Ka’ba ( agnostic icons?)

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Orphan Qurayash tribe Khadija (1 st wife) Muhammad 570-632

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Spiritual Transformation Night of Power and Excellence c. 610 Jibril (Gabriel) with God’s message Revelations or Recitations God = Allah Public recitations—God or jinns?

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“Say ‘Allah is God alone! God the everlasting! He brings forth not and is not generated! Nor arrives like unto Him anyone!” - The Quran 2:344

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Muhammad as the last and last prophet Following in the convention of past prophets: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, Jesus All had been Muslim, yet had turned adrift or not gotten the whole message Islam = Submission Muslim = one who submits (to the will of God) People of the Book Warning picture follows… Seal of the Prophets

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Muhammad gets anointed

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The Five Pillars of Islam Shahadah: There is one God and Muhammad is his prophet. Salat : 5x Daily Prayer Fasting amid Ramadan Zakat : Alms for the feeble and poor Hajj : Pilgrimage to Mecca

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Prescriptions of Islam What is being “prescribed” here???

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Conflict in Mecca: why? Hijra from Mecca to Yathrib (Medina) 622 Calendar The Umma Mecca 630 Warning!

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Muhammad the Warrior

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Abu Bakr the first khalifa (successor) Umar c. 634-644 Uthman (Umayya family) c. 644-656 Ali (child in-law/cousin) c. 656-660 Death of Muhammad 632

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Conflict over progression Shi’at Ali (Party of Ali) = Shi’ites Ali, Muhammad’s first cousin/child in-law ought to succeed. Development to Iraq Ahl al-Sunna wa’l-Jama’a = Sunnis (People of Tradition and group)

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Shi’ites Led by an Imam. Relatives of Muhammad through Ali and Fatima. Pioneers are celestially motivated and know the concealed implications of the Quran. Imam are the main ones who offer judgment on religious law. 12 grand Imams (impeccable educators) twelfth Imam, the Mahdi (guided one), will return and aide people towards equity and peace.

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Caliph is the mainstream pioneer. No awesome association for pioneers. Speaks to the religious pioneers, however teaching is left to the Ulama (the individuals who know) Sunnis

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Quran c.650 (Recitation) Hadith—words and deeds of the prophet Shari’a—Islamic Law

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First hundred years Non-Arab, non-Muslim populace Few constrained conversions—taxes People of the Book One must be Arab to be Muslim and the other way around. mid-700s more non-Arabs got to be Muslim Policy Toward Conquered Peoples

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Umayyad Dynasty (661-750) Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Egypt, North Africa, Persia, Sind (NW India), Iberian landmass. Focus at Damascus. Military extension. Arch of the Rock- - Jerusalem

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Umayyad Dynasty

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Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258) Crete, Sicily, Cyprus, Rhodes, Sardinia, Corsica, southern Italy, southern France. Focus at Baghdad. Not effectively expansionist.

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Abbasid Dynasty

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Battle at Talas River 751 Defeat of Chinese troops Gain of Chinese detainees of war and

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